Presentation on theme: "The European Middle Ages"— Presentation transcript:
1 The European Middle Ages The Church Wields Power13.4
2 The Power of the ChurchPopes could crown kings, choose Clergy, & sought to control politicsClergy: religious officialsenforced Canon law: religious laws that all had to obeyProvided Sacraments: ceremonies needed to go to heaven
3 It was a stable, unifying force in an age of chaos. Commoners & kings feared excommunication & eternal damnationCoat of arms of the Papacy
4 The Holy Roman EmpirePatchwork of German & Italian feudal principalities which elected a German emperor who was approved by the Pope.Emperors were in constant conflict with local princes, bishops, and the pope.As a result, Germany & Italy did not unite as nations until the mid-1800s.
6 Otto the Great : 1st true Holy Roman Emperor Controlled church in Germany = appointed clergyClaimed emperors could approve new popesItalian Nobles resented German Emperors & Popes came to fear them
7 Church of St. Michael in Hildescheim, Germany Church of St. Michael in Hildescheim, Germany. It is Ottonian (German) Early Romanesque. Romanesque (meaning Roman-like) was a mixture of Byzantine and Carolingian influences. It features heavy and symetrical structures with true-rounded arches. Unlike later Gothic architecture which had ribbed vaults and pointed arches, round arches do NOT allow large windows. As a result, Romanesque structures (such as the many castles in Medieval Europe) tend to be gloomy places on the inside.
8 Interior of St. Michael’s Interior of St. Michael’s. The painted ceiling tells the story of Jesus’ geneology.
9 Lay Investiture Controversy Greatest conflict between church & state in the Middle AgesHoly Roman Emperors & Popes fought over who got to appoint Clergy ($$$)1075, Pope Gregory VII banned Lay InvestitureThe power to choose Bishops and Abbots was lucrative for secular rulers. Bishops and Abbots were positions that were associated with a lot of wealth and land. It meant that an emperor could sell the position in the clergy for money (a practice called simony). He could expand his influence over a region by having the support of the bishops. The bishops controlled access to the sacraments in their respective regions. This meant that the Emperor could use intrigue to excommunicate rivals or rebel princes, or even have them tried for heresy. Excommunication did not only ensure “eternal damnation,” but it also meant that all feudal obligations toward that individual were null and void. So once loyal nobles, bishops, princes, and knights were no longer bound by any duty to protect the person who has been “cast-out” of the church.
10 Emperor Henry IV demanded that the Pope resign Pope had him excommunicated!German princes & bishops abandoned the Emperor
11 Henry Begged Forgiveness Showed the power Popes had over EmperorsAnd Germany remained divided
12 Frederick BarbarossaTried gaining power over Italy & the Church by invasionItalian nobles & the Pope allied against him.1176, They defeated his forces & Italy freed itself of German dominance
13 1176: Battle of Legnano = The Northern Italian Lombard League defeated Fredericks mounted knights using foot-soldiers armed with crossbows.