Presentation on theme: " After Charlemagne’s death – chaos again in Italy. › Italy split between Byzantines, Pope (Papal States) and Muslims (Sicily) Otto I – elected in Germany."— Presentation transcript:
After Charlemagne’s death – chaos again in Italy. › Italy split between Byzantines, Pope (Papal States) and Muslims (Sicily) Otto I – elected in Germany › Strong and forceful ruler. › Desired to take over Italy › Pope John XII asks for his help against Roman nobles. › Pope rewards Otto with the title, “Emperor of the Romans” because Otto had helped him. › Otto I now controlled all of Germany and northern Italy (HRE) – less territory than Charlemagne, but still powerful in Europe.
Ruled between 1046-1056 Felt that the government is more powerful and important than the church. Strong and powerful leader. Three different men claimed to be the pope. Henry’s power enabled him to remove all three who claimed the papacy and install a German in their place. Henry III also was able to name the next three popes.
Henry IV was only 5 years old when he became emperor. Nobles and the Church saw his youth as an opportunity to restore their power. At 15, Henry attempted to strengthen the power of the empire over the Church by naming his own Bishops. This practice is known as “lay investiture”. Gregory VII felt that the Church had power over all people – including kings. He claimed that the Catholic Church was the supreme power on earth. Gregory excommunicates Henry and urges his subjects to overthrow him and elect another emperor.
Henry eventually asked forgiveness of the pope. › He traveled to Carossa to meet with the pope. › Gregory VII made him wait 3 days to be allowed to see the pope. › Henry begs forgiveness of the pope, leading to the pope lifting his excommunication. Concordat of Worms › Struggle over lay investiture continues. › Concordat of Worms was an agreement to settle this struggle. › Only popes could name bishops. › Emperor could appoint bishops to fiefs. › Thus – the Concordat of Worms limited imperial power over the German Church.
Also known as Frederick I (1152-1190) Wanted to gain control of Italy. Bologna, Padua, Verona and Milan had become independent of the emperor. Destroyed Milan, but the other cities continued to resist. › They formed the Lombard League and raised an army to fight off Frederick I. They defeated Frederick in 1176 – but made an agreement that the emperor would be the ruler, but the cities could govern themselves.
Pope from 1198 to 1216 Strongest of all the medieval popes. Believed in the supreme power of the pope over all people – including kings and emperors – considered them servants of the Church. Intervened in disputes throughout Europe and freely used his power of excommunication and interdiction to settle conflict and maintain control over Europe. › Placed an interdict over all of England and forced King John to become his vassal and pay an annual tithe to Rome. › Placed an interdict over France and forced King Philip to take his wife back (divorced) and re-name her queen. › Overthrew 2 German kings and replaced them with his own choice. Never able to achieve unity between Germany and Italy.