Presentation on theme: "The Power of the Church. Essential Questions: Why did popes and political leaders (kings/Emperors) often clash? How was the Catholic Church the stabilizing."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Questions: Why did popes and political leaders (kings/Emperors) often clash? How was the Catholic Church the stabilizing force in Western Europe? What powers did popes wield over political leaders?
Q1. What institution became the most important force in unifying European society? Answer: The Roman Catholic Church After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, people looked to the Catholic Church to provide stability out of the midst of chaos The Church provided not only spiritual guidance, but churches and monasteries were also the centers of commerce, politics and social interaction
Q2 Why did popes and political leaders often clash? Popes tried to influence the actions of kings; and kings wanted to ability to appoint favorable church officials (bishops/popes) who would support them. This led to a struggle for power.
Q3 Describe the hierarchy of the Church (top to bottom) Pope- The Bishop of Rome; considered the spiritual head of the Roman Catholic Church Bishops- Would oversee the priests in a city/surrounding area. Position often afforded them great wealth through the collection of church taxes Priests- Led services at local parishes (not wealthy) Laity- those people who attended church services; the average man/woman
Q4 What nickname was given to the Middle Ages? The Age of Faith People were bound together by their common belief in God and Church doctrines (teachings)
Q5 How did peasants cope with their hard lives? Believed that by obeying God and his representatives on earth (clergy) they would earn the reward of salvation and go to heaven
Q6 What is another name for church law? Canon law It set the standards for the conduct of the people and officials of the Church (Q7)To Whom did canon law apply? To all Christians, from kings down to peasants
Q8 What were two punishments used by the pope if someone broke canon law? Excommunication Banishment from the church Could not receive the sacraments (baptism, confession, communion, last rites, etc.) Ostracized by the community Would be doomed to hell Meant to be medicinal in order to compel the person to repent (get back into line) and rejoin the Church
Q8 Continued… Interdiction- a population would not get the usual religious rites. They weren’t banned from the Church like in excommunication, but the populace would be understandably in fear of their souls’ futures. It put further political pressure on rulers to repent or on a population to repent. It was sometimes used just as a temporary punishment rather than as a corrective measure.
Q10 What is lay investiture and how was the issue of lay investiture solved? lay investiture- the secular authority (king/emperor) asserting control over the religious authority (pope), with the emperor having the ability to appoint church officials. Liked by kings, not by popes. How was the issue solved? The Concordat of Worms Pope was given the power to appoint the bishop, but the emperor/king had the right to turn down any appointment he did not like
Q9 What did the alliance between Otto I and the pope lead to the formation of? A: The Holy Roman Empire Origins seen during the rules of Clovis and Charlemagne (remember, he was crowned Emperor of the West by the pope) 962 AD- 1802 AD: It was comprised mostly of what is modern day Germany and Italy Remember though: it was neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire. It was mostly a patchwork of feudal territories; but H.R. Emperors saws themselves as protectors of the Church
Q11 After 1200 AD, who held the real power in the HRE (Germany)? Answer: The German nobility/barons, even though emperors would try to reestablish their power H.R. Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) was a powerful ruler, but every time he left the country to go fight, things would fall apart at home (he liked to invade rich Italian cities). He drowned in 1190 AD on his way to fight in a crusade. Continual conflict between the Germanic territories was one reason why Germany never unified like England and France did during this time