Presentation on theme: "We talked about the Crusades, and what they meant to the feudal system & the Catholic Church. BUT…. We need to backtrack. How can the Pope have so much."— Presentation transcript:
We talked about the Crusades, and what they meant to the feudal system & the Catholic Church. BUT…. We need to backtrack. How can the Pope have so much power, that the people will just listen to him when he calls for 8 Crusades?! That’s what these notes explain…
1.What is the time period we are studying called? 2.Before – we were in the beginning of the Middle Ages “Dark Ages” Why was it called that? 3.Were there any central governments in feudal Europe? Why or why not? 4.What became the most powerful institution in feudal Europe?
In the U.S. government – do church and “state” work together? – Are there any laws against it? What problems can you foresee if the church and state work together? During the Middle Ages, who was the leader of the religious world? What about political?
RED = You should probably WRITE it DOWN or paraphrase it! GREEN = useful but not necessary
Church also had a structure or “hierarchy” Who was at the top? – Pope Who was under the pope? – Clergy – Body of officials who perform religious services Bishops Priests – lowest ranking members of the clergy
Feudalism = divisions Christianity = sense of security and belonging – Sacraments – important religious ceremonies paved the way for salvation Like what? Baptism and communion Also created a system of justice to guide conduct – Canon law – “Church law” – established courts to convict people
What kinds of punishments do you think they would give? – Excommunication- banishment from the Church How do you think this would take power from political leaders? – Interdict – More serious! Many sacraments and religious services could not be performed in the king’s lands – “doomed to hell” without these
Charlemagne was crowned what? – By who? – A.D. 800 Hmmm…could there be future conflicts because of this?
Wait – Didn’t the Roman Empire fall? – Well… Otto the Great – of Germany (East Frankish Kingdom) – was also crowned emperor by the pope (A.D. 962)East – The German-Italian empire he created became known as the Holy Roman Empire – Why do you think it got this name?
The Holy Roman Empire is established AFTER Charlemagne’s empire falls
What conflict developed between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor?
Lay investiture – a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials – Why would they want this power, and who do you think is not gonna like this? Pope Gregory VII (new Gregory) banned lay investiture – Who’s not gonna like this?
The German emperor, Henry IV, ordered Gregory to step down from the papacy – with the approval of the bishops Gregory excommunicated Henry (A.D. 1076) – bishops now switch sides…why? Henry tries to get forgiveness – Why such a break in his pride? – What do you think he does? How’s he gonna do this?
January 1077- Henry crossed the snowy Alps to visit Gregory and BEGGED for forgiveness!BEGGED – Is it “too late to apologize?”too late to apologize Pope forgave him after he waited three days (barefoot) in the snow (Pope had to forgive him b/c of Church law) Henry was just being politically shrewd…’cuz shortly after he was forgiven, he got rid of Gregory VII. 50 years later – a compromise was reached “Concordat of Worms” – the Church alone could appoint a bishop, but the emperor could veto it