Presentation on theme: "Sentence Structure. What is a Clause? A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. Some students work in the food pantry because they."— Presentation transcript:
What is a Clause? A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. Some students work in the food pantry because they care about helping hungry people. There are two kinds of clauses, independent and dependent. subject verb
Independent Clause An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Some students work in the food panty.
Dependent Clause A dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence. because they care about helping hungry people
Subordinate Clauses A dependent clause, also known as a subordinate clause, can be joined to an independent clause to add to the complete thought that the independent clause expresses. Students also make bag lunches that are distributed at a shelter.
Simple Sentences A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no dependent clauses. Remember that even a simple sentence can be quite elaborate. Each of the following sentences has only a single independent clause. Shawn tutors. Benita teaches young children acrobatics after school.
Compound Sentences A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses an no dependent clause. The clauses in a compound sentence must be closely related in thought. Shawn tutors, and he helps students learn math. Independent clause
Independent clauses can be joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon. Some children have no books, and volunteers can hold book drives for them. Some children have no toys; volunteers can collect donated toys for them. Coordinating Conjunctions ForOr AndBut Norso Yet
Don’t mistake a simple sentence with a compound predicate for a compound sentence. No punctuation should separate the parts of a compound predicate. The Newcomers’ Club wrote a clever script and then filmed it.
Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Most dependent clauses start with words like when, until, who, where, because, and so that. Such a clause might tell when something happened, which person was involved, or where the event took place.
When we visited, Mrs. Smith shared her memories of working in a shipyard during World War II. Mrs. Smith was a photographer until she was drafted. Dependent Clause Independent Clause Dependent Clause Independent Clause
Compound-Complex Sentences A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. When our school celebrates Earth Day, we sign up for environmental projects, and we try to complete them all in one day. Independent clause Dependent clause Independent clause
Kinds of Dependent Clauses There are 3 kinds of dependent clauses 1.Adjective clauses 2.Adverb clauses 3.Noun clauses
Adjective Clauses An adjective clause is a dependent clause used as an adjective. An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun. It tells what kind, which one, how many, or how much. Student volunteers read stories to the children (who were in the daycare center.) Adjective clause Modifies noun
Adjective Clauses Adjective clauses are usually introduced by relative pronouns. The story, which made them laugh, is about a monkey. Notice that a clause that begins with “which” is set off with commas. Relative Pronouns Who Whom Whose That which
Adverb Clauses An adverb clause is a dependent clause used as an adverb. It modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. An adverb clause might tell where, when, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions.
Adverb Clauses AsThat IfWhile BecauseWhere Even thoughWhen ThanAs if sosince Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as… They were happy because they were going to the zoo Adverb clause Modifies adj.
Adverb Clause An adverb clause should be followed by a comma when it comes before an independent clause. When an adverb clause comes after an independent clause, a comma may or may not be needed before it. When the field trip ended, the volunteers took the children back to the daycare center. The volunteers took the children back to the daycare center when the field trip ended.
Noun Clauses A noun clause is a dependent clause used as a noun. Like a noun, a noun clause can serve as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, or a predicate noun. What frustrates many physically challenged people is the problem of getting around. Noun clause serving as subject
Noun Clauses Volunteers know that physically challenged people do not want special treatment. Christopher will tell whoever is volunteering the locations of the elevators. Noun clause serving as a direct object Noun clause serving as an indirect object
Noun Clauses Nouns clauses are introduced by words such as… If you can substitute the word something or someone for a clause in a sentence, it is a noun clause. ThatHowWhenWhere WhetherWhyWhatWhatever WhoWhomWhoeverWhomever Whichwhichever