2What is a Clause?A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb.Some students work in the food pantry because they care about helping hungry people.There are two kinds of clauses, independent and dependent.subjectverbsubjectverb
3Independent ClauseAn independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.Some students work in the food panty.
4Dependent ClauseA dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence.because they care about helping hungry people
5Subordinate ClausesA dependent clause, also known as a subordinate clause, can be joined to an independent clause to add to the complete thought that the independent clause expresses.Students also make bag lunches that are distributed at a shelter.
6Simple SentencesA simple sentence contains one independent clause and no dependent clauses. Remember that even a simple sentence can be quite elaborate. Each of the following sentences has only a single independent clause.Shawn tutors.Benita teaches young children acrobatics after school.
7Compound SentencesA compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses an no dependent clause. The clauses in a compound sentence must be closely related in thought.Shawn tutors, and he helps students learn math.Independent clauseIndependent clause
8Coordinating Conjunctions Independent clauses can be joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon.Some children have no books, and volunteers can hold book drives for them.Some children have no toys; volunteers can collect donated toys for them.Coordinating ConjunctionsForOrAndButNorsoYet
9Don’t mistake a simple sentence with a compound predicate for a compound sentence. No punctuation should separate the parts of a compound predicate.The Newcomers’ Club wrote a clever script and then filmed it.
10Complex SentencesA complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Most dependent clauses start with words like when, until, who, where, because, and so that. Such a clause might tell when something happened, which person was involved, or where the event took place.
11Mrs. Smith was a photographer until she was drafted. When we visited, Mrs. Smith shared her memories of working in a shipyard during World War II.Mrs. Smith was a photographer until she was drafted.DependentClauseIndependentClauseIndependentClauseDependentClause
12Compound-Complex Sentences A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.When our school celebrates Earth Day, wesign up for environmental projects, and we tryto complete them all in one day.Dependent clauseIndependent clauseIndependent clause
13Kinds of Dependent Clauses There are 3 kinds of dependent clausesAdjective clausesAdverb clausesNoun clauses
14Adjective ClausesAn adjective clause is a dependent clause used as an adjective. An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun. It tells what kind, which one, how many, or how much. Student volunteers read stories to the children (who were in the daycare center.)Modifies nounAdjective clause
15Adjective ClausesAdjective clauses are usually introduced by relative pronouns.The story, which made them laugh, is about a monkey.Notice that a clause that begins with “which” is set off with commas.Relative PronounsWhoWhomWhoseThatwhich
16Adverb ClausesAn adverb clause is a dependent clause used as an adverb. It modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. An adverb clause might tell where, when, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions.
17Adverb ClausesAdverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as…Adverb ClausesAsThatIfWhileBecauseWhereEven thoughWhenThanAs ifsosinceModifies adj.They were happy because they were going to the zooAdverb clause
18Adverb ClauseAn adverb clause should be followed by a comma when it comes before an independent clause. When an adverb clause comes after an independent clause, a comma may or may not be needed before it.When the field trip ended, the volunteers took the children back to the daycare center.The volunteers took the children back to the daycare center when the field trip ended.
19Noun ClausesA noun clause is a dependent clause used as a noun. Like a noun, a noun clause can serve as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, or a predicate noun.What frustrates many physically challenged people is the problem of getting around.Noun clause serving as subject
20Noun ClausesNoun clause serving as a direct objectVolunteers know that physically challenged people do not want special treatment.Christopher will tell whoever is volunteering the locations of the elevators.Noun clause serving as an indirect object
21Noun Clauses Nouns clauses are introduced by words such as… If you can substitute the word something or someone for a clause in a sentence, it is a noun clause.ThatHowWhenWhereWhetherWhyWhatWhateverWhoWhomWhoeverWhomeverWhichwhichever