2 Clause vs. PhraseClause: A group of related words with both a subject and a verb. May or may not be able to stand on its own.Phrase: A group of related words without both a subject or a verb. Acts as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective, or preposition. Cannot stand on its own.
3 Clause Types Independent Clause: She is older than her brother. Dependent Clause: Because she is older than her brother, she has to watch him sometimes.A word called a “subordinating conjunction” introduces a dependent clause.
4 Phrase vs. Dependent Clause Both phrases and dependent clauses cannot stand alone.However, dependent clauses must have a subject and a verb, while phrases can only have one.Also, dependent clauses start with subordinating conjunctions, while phrases do not.
5 Common subordinating conjunctions afterif onlyunlessalthoughin order thatuntilasnow thatwhenas ifoncewheneveras long asrather thanwhereas thoughsincewhereasbecauseso thatwhereverbeforethanwhileeven ifthateven thoughthoughiftill
6 Phrases that act like nous Simple noun phrasesNoun + modifiers(Can be a subject, object of a verb, or object of a preposition).Examples: A very tired Thomas looked for his blue shirt. The substitute teacher taught all of the kindergarteners today.Gerund phrasesGerund (verb + -ing) + modifiersExample: She began thinking about her life.Infinitive phrases (sometimes)Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiersExample: He likes to play soccer.
7 Write three sentences. Use each kind of noun phrase and underline it. Simple noun phraseGerund phraseInfinitive phrase
8 Phrases that act like adjectives Simple adjective phrasesAdjective + modifiersExample: He was wearing his nice red shirt.Participial phrasesParticiple + modifiersExample: The children, needing guidance, asked for help.Prepositional phrases (sometimes)Preposition + object of the preposition + modifiersExample: The man on the roof tried not to fall.Infinitive phrases (sometimes)Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiersExample: Her plan to win student council president was a good one.
9 Write 4 sentences, include each type of adjective phrase, and underline it. Simple adjective phrasesParticipial phrasesPrepositional phrases (sometimes)Infinitive phrases (sometimes)
10 Phrases that act like adverbs Prepositional phrases (sometimes)Preposition + object of the preposition + modifiersExample: The babysitter shouted in a loud voice.Infinitive phrases (sometimes)Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiersExample: He yelled to warn everyone about the broken glass.
11 Write two sentences with adverb phrases, underline each Prepositional phrase (sometimes)Infinitive phrase (sometimes)
12 Phrases that act like verbs Verb phraseVerb (+helping verb, sometimes) + all modifiers(It’s the predicate of the sentence.)Examples: She has been studying for three hours. Thomas wrote an excellent essay.
13 Write one sentence with a verb phrase. Underline it.
14 Absolute Phrases Modify (give information about) the entire sentence. Noun or pronoun + participle + modifiersResembles a clause, but its verb can’t stand alone (it is not a “finite” verb)Examples: Her eyes on the clock, Lisa waited for her shift to end. He looked different, his face expressing worry.
15 Write one sentence with an absolute phrase. Underline it.
16 Sentence Types Simple: Subject + Verb (Independent Clause) Compound: Two Independent Clauses joined by a Coordinating ConjunctionComplex: Independent Clause with one or more Dependent Clauses. Always has a Subordinating Conjunction or Relative Pronoun.Compound-Complex: Two Independent Clauses and one or more Dependent Clauses.
17 Sentence TypesSimple: Some students prefer to do their homework in the morning.Compound: Tina had to work tonight, but Alex took the night off.Complex: When he finished his work, he forgot to put his name on it.Compound-complex: The animal was scared, but it was also angry, since it had been cornered.
18 Break it down!Some students prefer to do their homework in the morning.This is an independent clause. It has a subject (students) and a verb (prefer), and it can stand alone.It is made up of many phrases!noun phrases (some students) (their homework)verb phrase (prefer to do their homework in the morning)infinitive phrase that acts like a noun because it is the object of a verb (to do their homework)prepositional phrase (in the morning)
19 Simple sentenceWrite your own simple sentence. Circle the subject and underline the verb.
20 Break it down! Tina had to work tonight, but Alex took the night off. This sentence has two independent clauses. Each has a subject (Tina/Alex) and a verb (had/took).It is made of many phrases!Verb phrases (had to work tonight/took the night off)Infinitive phrase acting as a noun because it is the object of the verb “had” (to work tonight)Noun phrase because it is the object of the verb “took” (the night off)
21 Compound sentence Write your own compound sentence Circle the subjects and underline the verbs
22 Break it down!When he finished his work, he forgot to put his name on it.This sentence has a dependent clause (subject: he. verb: handed. subordinating conjunction: when).It also has an independent clause (subject: he. verb: forgot)It is made up of phrases!Verb phrases (finished his work/forgot to put his name on it)Infinitive phrase acting as a noun because it is the object of the verb “forgot” (to put his name on it)Prepositional phrase acting as an adverb because it answers the question “what” (on it)
23 Complex sentence Write your own complex sentence Circle the subjects and underline the verbs
24 Break it down!The animal was scared, but it was also angry, since it had been cornered.This sentence has two independent clauses and one dependent clause. Subjects: animal/it/it. Verbs: was/was/had been.It is made up of verb phrases: was scared/was also angry/had been cornered.
25 Compound-complex sentence Write your own compound-complex sentence.Circle the subjects and underline the verbs.