Presentation on theme: "Grammar & Sentence Structure"— Presentation transcript:
1 Grammar & Sentence Structure The Basics – a review
2 Parts of Speech Noun Subject Pronoun Verb A person, place or thing; can be the subject of a sentenceSubjectWhat or who the sentence is aboutPronounA word that replaces or stands for a noun (he, she, it)VerbAn action word
3 Parts of Speech Adjective Adverb Preposition A word that describes or modifies a nounExamples: careful, quick, wiseAdverbA word that describes or modifies a verb (often ends in –ly)Ex: very, super, incrediblyPrepositionA word that indicates the relationship of a noun to another wordEx: to, at, with, for, against
4 Building Sentences Subject Predicate “actor” in a sentence Person, thing, who acts or is described in the sentencePredicateWhat is said about the subject of the sentenceContains verb
5 Building Sentences Phrase Clause Dependent Clause Independent Clause A group of words that does NOT have a subject and verbClauseA group of words containing a subject and verb to form part of a sentenceDependent ClauseDoes not express a complete thought, cannot be a sentenceIndependent ClauseA clause expressing a complete thought, a sentence
6 Four Basic Sentence Types Simple SentenceCompound SentenceComplex SentenceCompound-Complex Sentence
7 Simple SentencesDefinition - a sentence with one independent clause; a complete thought.A simple sentence can have compound subjects, compound verbs, and many difference types of phrases.
8 Simple Sentences Examples: Jamal plays football. Domino catches mice and birds.Mrs. Donahue and Mrs. Nielsen read every night.Sidney is taking both French and Latin.Unlike many other languages, the English alphabet has twenty-six letters to represent the sounds of its words.
9 Sentence Building (part II) Independent ClauseA clause expressing a complete thought, a sentenceEx: Ms. Morgan went to school.Coordinating ConjunctionJoins equals to one another: words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses to clausesFor, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So (FANBOYS)Ex: Kayla and Alaina like to read manga.Conjunctive AdverbJoins two independent clauses togetherTherefore, nevertheless, however, next, for example
10 Semicolons Semicolon ( ; ) Used between independent clauses that are not joined by a coordinating conjunctionEx: Ms. Morgan was at school on Monday; Tuesday she was absent.Used between ICs joined by a conjunctive adverbEx: Ms. Morgan was at school on Monday; however, Tuesday she was absent.
11 Semicolons Semicolon ( ; ) Used between items in a series with internal punctuationEx: Ms. Morgan, a teaching assistant; Mrs. Nielsen, a teacher; and Mr. Person, the principal, met to talk about English classes.Used between ICs with internal punctuationEx: To do well in school, we should do our homework; but to do well in life, we need to experience!
12 Compound SentencesDefinition – a sentence with two independent clauses joined by:a) a coordinating conjunctionb) a conjunctive adverb, orc) a semicolon aloneExamples:a) Christi reads novels, but Alaina likes manga.b) Christi reads novels; however, Alaina likes manga.c) Christi reads novels; her friends read manga.