Presentation on theme: "Pasco Hernando Community College Tutorial Series."— Presentation transcript:
Pasco Hernando Community College Tutorial Series
What is a Sentence? A sentence is a group of words that has a subject, predicate, and a complete thought. A sentence can include just a subject and predicate as long as it completes a thought. Bunnies hop. The word bunnies is the subject (the doer of the action) The word hop is the predicate (the action word, the verb). There is a complete thought. A thought doesn’t have to be logical or even sane to be complete.
What is a Sentence? The subject of a sentence has to be a noun or pronoun. A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea. A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. The predicate of a sentence has to be a verb. A verb is an action word or a state of being word. Bunnies hop. The word bunnies is a noun. The word hop is a verb.
What is a Sentence? A sentence can include words that describe. Big, white bunnies hop slowly. The words big and white are words that describe bunnies. Words that describe nouns are called adjectives. The word quickly describes hop. Words that describe verbs are called adverbs.
Phrases Blue giraffes fly at midnight. This sentence has an adjective, a word that describes a noun: blue is an adjective. It also has another word group: at midnight. Word groups that do not have a subject or predicate are called phrases. Phrases usually have nouns (a person, place, thing, or idea), but the noun is not a subject since there is no verb to serve as predicate.
Clauses A clause is a group of words with a subject (doer) and a predicate (action, verb). Some clauses can stand alone as sentences. These are called independent clauses since they don’t need anything else to be a sentence. They are clauses that express a complete thought. Some clauses cannot stand along as sentences. These are called dependent clauses. Dependent clauses begin with a word that makes them dependent. These word groups are not sentences because they do not have a complete thought.
Clauses Dependent clauses begin a conjunction which are words that join parts of a sentence. Blue giraffes fly at midnight, but they are rarely seen. Blue giraffes fly at midnight although they are rarely seen. Blue giraffes fly at midnight which is a rare sight to see. Note that there is a comma before the word but – a coordinating conjunction. There is not a comma a comma before the subordinating conjunction although. Since there is not a comma before the which relative pronoun clause, the author’s intent is that it is necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
Clauses There are three types of conjunctions which begin dependent clauses: coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so - FANBOYS) - comma must go before the clause subordinating conjunctions (such as if though since, although after, because before, while when ITS AA BB WW) – comma does not go before the clause. There are many more subordinating conjunctions. relative pronoun conjunctions (whose that which whichever, who whoever, whom whomever, what whatever WTWW WW WW WW) – commas separate relative clauses when they are not necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
Clauses Words such as however, therefore, furthermore, furthermore, finally, and instead are not conjunctions and cannot be used to join sentences. While these words can begin a sentence, there must be a period or, if appropriate, a semicolon in front of them. Ellouise went to the gym; however, her friend Gina went to the mall. Ellouise went to the gym. However, her friend Gina went to the mall. See how there must be a period or semicolon before the adverb however since there are two sentences. Ellouise went to the gym however sick she felt. Here, the word however is not separating two sentences, so there should not be a period or semicolon in front of it.
Coordinating Conjunction Dependent Clauses Coordinating conjunction dependent clauses are word groups that have a subject and a verb and begin with a coordinating conjunction: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so (FANBOYS). So I had to pack the night before. And many people believe that aliens have visited earth. But they had some good results. These word groups are not sentences. Although they have a subject and a predicate, they do not complete a thought. If the conjunction is not connecting something, the thought is not complete.
Subordinate Conjunction Dependent Clauses Subordinate conjunction dependent clauses (or subordinate clauses) are word groups that have a subject and a predicate and begin with a subordinating conjunction such as if though since, although after, because before, while when (ITS AA BB WW). These are some common subordinate conjunctions; however, there are many more. Because it was raining When I’m feeling angry If I’m feeling blue Although these have a subject and a proper verb (predicate), they do not complete a thought.
Relative Clauses Relative clauses (relative pronoun clauses) are word groups that have a subject and a verb and begin with a relative pronoun: whose that which whichever, who whoever, whom whomever, what whatever. Relative pronouns are also conjunctions since they join parts of a sentence. That I have always wanted to visit. Whichever it may be. Which I play every day. Note: See how every day is two words since the meaning is each day. Use everyday (one word) when you are describing something: everyday shoes.
To Review Sentences are word groups that have a subject (doer), predicate (action, verb), and a complete thought. Sentences can have modifiers which tell more about the subject, verb, or other parts of the sentence: adjectives and adverbs. Phrases, word groups that do not have a subject and predicate, may be used to tell more about something in the sentence. Clauses are word groups that have a subject and a predicate.
To Review An independent clause has a subject and predicate and completes a thought. A sentence is an independent clause. A dependent clause has a subject and predicate, but it begins with a word that makes the clause dependent upon more information to complete the thought. A word that makes a clause dependent is a conjunction: a word that joins parts of the sentence.
To Review There are three types of conjunctions which create dependent clauses: coordinating, subordinating, and relative pronouns. Words such as however, therefore, now, consequently, and instead are adverbs and while they can begin a sentence, they cannot join sentences. There must be a period or semicolon (where appropriate) before these words. Dependent clauses are not sentences since they do not have a complete thought.