Presentation on theme: "Reminder… 2nd Essay 69Q5 now due on Wednesday 27th November 4 p.m."— Presentation transcript:
Reminder… 2nd Essay 69Q5 now due on Wednesday 27th November 4 p.m.
‘Good King Robert.’ Stable, well-supported reign? Or is this the view of later generations torn by strife? Archdeacon John Barbour’s The Bruce, written 1371-5.
Good Medieval Scottish Kingship? - Impartial Justice and Law and Order. - Protect property and trade. - Defend the realm in War. - Fount of Patronage. - Take counsel. - ‘Live of his own’ resources - Stable (adult male) succession.
Robert I’s Restoration of Alexandrian Government - Chancellor, Chamberlain, Marischal, Constable by 1308-09. - First parliament March 1309. - Justiciars- Thomas Randolph north of Forth - Robert Lauder in Lothian - but not in South-West! - Sheriffs restored - often hereditary - Revenue collection - e.g. burgh customs. - Laws: restated and added to in parliament; codified by clergy
- PATRONAGE - confirming lands and rights to magnates and churches before Bannockburn; but after Cambuskenneth parliament November 1314 and forfeiture of opponents really begins to redistribute land to supporters...
Key opponents forfeited... Comyns - Buchan, Badenoch, Lochaber and many other NE and SW lands. Balliol - Galloway and Lothian/Angus lands. David Strathbogie earl of Atholl, lord of Strathbogie. Macdougalls of Lorne and Garmoran in Argyllshire and isles. English-based lords - de Guines, Ferrers, Zouche… see G.W.S. Barrow, ch. 14.
Robert I’s Key Supporters and patronage recipients Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray/Annandale, Man, Justiciar etc. James Douglas - Douglasdale, Selkirk, Lauderdale… Ross earls - half of Buchan; Skye Adam Gordon - Strathbogie Campbells of Lochawe - Atholl, Argyll lands MacDonalds - some Argyll lands but not Skye and Kintyre Alexander Seton - Lothian lands Frasers - NE and Angus lands Stewarts - Kintyre, SW and Perthshire lands Robert Bruce (bastard of Robert I) - Liddesdale Robert Keith and Gilbert Hay (Marischal and Constable) - NE lands
The Uncertain Bruce Succession April 1315 parliament tailzie - Edward Bruce heir before Marjorie Bruce; sealed by magnates and prelates. Dec 1318 - grandson Robert Stewart recognised as heir [5 March 1324 (twin boys John and) David Bruce born.] 1326 - David Bruce recognised as heir apparent. In each instance, Thomas Randolph named as Guardian in event of minority; then James Douglas; if Bruce line dies out, community to assemble to choose new lord.
Declaration of Arbroath April 1320 - 45 or so magnate seals - 8 accused of treason Aug 1320
The ‘Soules Conspiracy’ c. 1318-20 Oct 1318 - Edward Bruce killed in Ireland Nov 1318 - Edward Balliol arrives in England April 1320 - Declaration of Arbroath Aug 1320 - ‘Black Parliament’:- William Soules, Roger Mowbray, Countess of Strathearn, David Brechin and several others accused of plot to kill Robert I.
August 1326 Scone parliament - Tailzie recognising David Bruce. - ratification by three estates of Franco-Scottish alliance. - Grant of a tenth of rents to Robert I who has run out of resources to sustain his household government: But: - only for his lifetime; only through Exchequer; no pensions or exemptions to be granted from it; no prise.
Robert I’s place-dates for issuing charters, 1323-28… …a king slowing down? In Ulster 1327, 1328… …but not in south-west or extreme north or western isles as 1306-23.
Robert I’s last year, 1328-29 Based at private manor house at Cardross, Dumbartonshire Pilgrimage to St Ninian shrine, Whithorn…on route makes a number of land grants in return for military services...
St Ninian’s Priory at Whithorn, Galloway… On route here Robert granted charters in return for services of 2 galleys, 4 armed men, 4 archers and a spearman… Deathbed testament? Told son and subjects never to fight pitched battle; heart to go on crusade with Douglas..