Presentation on theme: "The Canmore Kingdom before 1200 - Feudal tenure - Royal Household and Local Government - Regular/Secular Church. - Trading burghs. **A Single Dynasty."— Presentation transcript:
The Canmore Kingdom before 1200 - Feudal tenure - Royal Household and Local Government - Regular/Secular Church. - Trading burghs. **A Single Dynasty - kingship passing by PRIMOGENITURE
‘Outlying’ or Frontier Zones’ Far north/Moray 7 major risings 1130-1222 by MacHeth/MacWilliam dynastic rivals Western Isles Norse rule Major incursions 1154-8, 1164 by Somerled South-west - Galloway 5 major risings 1160-1234 by independent-minded lords of Galloway
Tensions:- - Native earls and lords slow to integrate with Anglo-Normans? - 1160 native earls rising v. Malcolm IV for going to France - c. 1200 William I described as more French than Scots - Royal charter addresses ‘French, English, Scots, Flemings, Welsh, Gallovidians…’
A Golden Age? Thirteenth Century Scotland William I, 1165-1214 | Alexander II, 1214-49 | Alexander III, 1249-86 [minority 1249-60] Main themes: 1. Expansion and consolidation of Scottish kingdom and royal government and authority. 2. Growth of Scottish national identity ?
‘When Alexander our kynge was ded, That Scotlande lede in lauche and le Away was sons of alle and brede, Off wyne and wax, of gamyn and gle. Out golde was changit in to lede. Christ, borne of virginyte, Succoure Scotlande, and ramede, That stade in perplexite’ Andrew of Wyntoun’s Original Chronicle, c. 1400-20
Royal stomping grounds: eastern lowlands
The Comyns Earls of Buchan, Lords of Lochaber; Justiciars in Scotia and Galloway; Sheriffs of Wigtown and in north-east Led Royal armies v. north and west 1230s to 1270s See A. Young, Robert the Bruce’s Rivals
Lochindorb castle, Moray, north-east.
The Western Isles… - MacDonalds of Islay Macdougalls of Lorne MacRuaries of Garmoran - Gaelic speaking - Part of Irish sea world - Nominally under Norse rule
Dumbarton castle, Clyde, west coast
Stone of Scone or Destiny
Royal Inauguration:- - taken to Scone - knighted? - placed on Stone by earls of Fife and Strathearn - blessed by Bishop of St Andrews - Oaths; Homage and Fealty - Genealogy recited by Gaelic bard
Queen Margaret d. 1093 Canonised 1251 and remains translated and re-interred at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife.
Bishopric of St Andrews, Fife - since 1100 Kings appealed to Papacy to have this diocese made an Archbishopric. By c. 1250 bishop here styling himself ‘bishop of the Scots’…
Turbulent ‘Minority’ of Alexander III, 1249-1260? Competing factions vie for control of King and government:- Comyns v. Durward and others…...each party prepared to appeal to Henry III (who’s daughter Alexander III weds in 1251)
Scottish Economy in 12th and 13th centuries Export - wool, animal hides & skins, fish. Import - finished metal goods, quality clothing, corn, timber, wines. Trading with Low Countries, Gascony, Baltic and German states, Norway; limited English/Irish trade Crown income - 1264 £7,000 [contrast to English crown’s £75,000]
Scottish incursion in the West I. Alex II - harried west; died on naval expedition 1249 1260-61 - Scottish embassy to Haakon IV of Norway to offer to buy western Isles 1262-3 - earl of Ross encouraged to attack Skye Stewarts encouraged to claim Knapdale and Arran.
II. 1263 - Haakon IV campaign to Isles; indecisive Battle of Largs (2 Oct) followed by Haakon’s death. 1266 - 2 July,Treaty of Perth - Scots buy western Isles and Mann for 4,000 merks and 100 merks p.a. (the annum).
The Tragic heirs of Alexander III? Alexander III = 1. Margaret (d. 1275), d. Henry III of England (d. 19 March 1286) | ______________ |____________________________ | || Alexander d. 1284David d. 1281Margaret (d. 1283 = Margaret d. of = King Eric II of Norway Count of Flanders| Margaret Maid of Norway, born 1284, un-inaugurated Queen (or ‘Lady’) of Scotland 1286-90. Alexander III = 2. 1285 Yolande of Dreux (d. 19 March 1286)For table see Barrow.
Parliament at Scone 5 Feb 1284 - Prince Alexander d. 17 Jan 1284 Oath by magnates, prelates and barons to recognise Alexander III’s granddaughter, Margaret of Norway (born 1282), as their ‘Lady’ and heir apparent to the kingship, failing any direct heirs of the king; magnates to suffer censure by prelates and action by other magnates if broke their oath. Witnesses - representative of expansion of royal authority?
Death of Alexander III, Kinghorn, Fife 19 March 1286...