Presentation on theme: "Scotland’s Diplomatic allies, 1298-1302 1. Trading partners - Baltic states, French and especially Flemish. 2. The French Crown - Philip IV - 1295 Alliance."— Presentation transcript:
Scotland’s Diplomatic allies, 1298-1302 1. Trading partners - Baltic states, French and especially Flemish. 2. The French Crown - Philip IV - 1295 Alliance still stood - French influence over Pope? - Get Scots included in any Anglo-French truces.
3. The Papacy 1292 Nicholas IV dies 2 year gap until… Celestine IV (July to Dec 1294) Boniface VIII (1294-1303) - a Pope set on reasserting peace in Europe and Rome’s authority over the monarchies. But… Clashes with Philip IV over clerical taxes.
28 June 1299 Papal Bull Scimus Filii Nicholson/Barrow/Prestwich - Scotland under protection of Rome. - Scots have argued ‘many times’ that no evidence of English overlordship. - Edward I imposed ‘unaccustomed innovations’ on Scotland when kingdom ‘without a head’ in 1291-2. - Pope demanded release of Bs of Glasgow and Isles and Edward to produce proof of overlordship claims within 6 months..
18 July 1299 - John Balliol released to Papal Custody September 1299 - Edward I weds sister of Philip IV of France - Prince Edward to wed Philip’s daughter.
Scottish Council at Peebles, August 1299 Report of spy in the service of English constable of Roxburgh castle, dated 20 August 1299 :- “At the council Sir David Graham demanded the lands and goods of Sir William Wallace because he was leaving the kingdom without the leave or approval of the Guardians. And Sir Malcolm Wallace, Sir William’s brother, answered that neither his lands nor his goods should be given away, for they were protected by the peace in which Wallace had left the kingdom. At this the two knights gave each other the lie and drew their daggers. And since Sir David Graham was of Sir John Comyn’s following and Sir Malcolm Wallace of the earl of Carrick’s following, it was reported to the earl of Buchan that a fight had broken out without their knowledge; and Sir John Comyn leapt at the earl of Carrick and seized him by the throat, and the earl of Buchan turned on the bishop of St Andrews, declaring that treason and lèsemajesté were being plotted. Eventually, the Steward and others came between them and quietened them…” Barrow p. 107
Changes in Guardianship… [July 1299 - Balliol released to Pope] Aug 1299 - Bishop Lamberton co-Guardian By May 1300 - Bruce out, Umfraville in ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Oct 1300 to May 1301 Anglo-Franco-Scottish Truce By May 1301 - John Soules Guardian in name of King John
7 May 1301 - letter of English baronage to Papacy Barrow/Prestwich - British Kings descended from three sons of Brutus - eldest son founded English kingship. - Arthur conquered Scotland and Wales - Tradition of Scots’ kings homages to English kings - William I’s homage for Scotland in 1174 - 1286-91 Scots did homage willingly… so King John a rebellious vassal. - Scots atrocities v. English since 1296 - Conquest 1296 = police action in domestic dispute.
Processus of Baldred Bisset - Scottish reply to English letter:- Barrow/Goldstein - English reply late, without documentary proof, full of falsehoods - Scotland founded by Gathelos and Scota, Greek prince and daughter of Pharoah, via Spain to Ireland to Argyll...
Processus of Baldred Bisset - Scottish reply to English letter:- Continued/… - Arthur conquered Scotland only briefly - Scotland a ‘special daughter’ of Rome - Homage done only for English lands - William I co-erced 1174; 1189 Quitclaim - No homage for Scotland by Alexanders II and III - Papacy opposed English interference in Scottish appeals for unction, control of crusade taxes etc..
1 Oct 1301 - Balliol released to French custody Treaty of Asnieres 26 Jan 1302 - 9 month truce includes Scots c. Feb 1302 - Bruce submits to Edward I to protect his lands and ‘le droit’ to defend his claim in any court v. Balliol
Stalemate Broken, 1302…? Feb 1302 - Great Scots embassy to France for aid for Balliol return:- Soules, Buchan, Umfraville, Bs of St Andrews & Dunkeld, Steward... 11 July 1302 - Battle of Courtrai; French forced to seek peace and abandon Scots Nov 1302 - Boniface VIII breaks with Philip IV and blames Scots Dec 1302 - Treaty of Amiens: Anglo-French peace excludes Scots…
Edward I already preparing army to invade Scotland early 1303….