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The Government of Henry VII.   Acts of Parliament – statue laws – best laws  Agreement of lords spiritual, temporal and key commoners  Established.

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Presentation on theme: "The Government of Henry VII.   Acts of Parliament – statue laws – best laws  Agreement of lords spiritual, temporal and key commoners  Established."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Government of Henry VII

2   Acts of Parliament – statue laws – best laws  Agreement of lords spiritual, temporal and key commoners  Established part of government  But not necessary for King to govern  Called intermittently, as needed  Primarily to raise extra-ordinary taxation  Also granted customs duties for life  Pass Acts of Attainder  Pass important laws – consent of political classes

3   7 th November 1485 – 4 th March 1486  Customs duties for life  Establish Henry VII’s reign from 21 st August 1485  Acts of Attainder (after Bosworth)  9 th November – 18 th December 1487  Acts of Attainders (after Stoke)  Establish new court  ‘Star Chamber’ (misnomer)

4   13 th January 1489 – 27 th February 1490  England went to the aid of Brittany  Against France  Taxation led to …  Northern Rebellion  Acts of Attainder  17 th October 1491 – 5 th March 1492  Funding for Expedition against Charles VIII of France  Concerns over Perkin Warbeck

5   14 th October – 21 st / 22 nd December 1495  Perkin Warbeck  After attempted landing in England and being chased from Ireland  De Facto Act  Duties of JPs extended  To help them keep control of their localities  16 th January – 13 th March 1497  Raising extra-ordinary taxes to defend north from Perkin Warbeck  25 th January – 1 st April 1504  Reinforcing previous Acts against liveried retainers

6   Consultative body  All nobles, councillors and burgesses  Representatives of political classes of whole country  Called five times by Henry VII  Between 1487 and 1502

7   Advised King on matters of state, administration of law and order  Varied in number and who was present  Whoever was available when necessary  Henry rarely present himself  Loyalty most important attribute for members  Divided into specific councils, or committees as necessary

8   Established 1495  After treason involving high ranking member of Henry VII’s Household  Sir William Stanley etc  At heart of Household  Saw king at most private, intimate  Massive potential for influence his decisions  Chamber servants low status  Not members of nobility  Henry VII increasingly withdrew into Privy Chamber

9   Various established to tackle specific issues  Most (in)famous: Council Learned  Established 1495  Ensure king received all feudal dues and entitlements  Supervised collection of bonds and recognisances  Operated without jury/ chance of appeal

10   Established as necessary to investigate and deal with specific issues  Oyer and Terminer was permanent  Power to hear certain judicial cases  As thought necessary by King  Commission of the Peace  Supplement other courts as necessary  No legal training necessary to be named as part of commission  Though usually had one or two lawyers

11   Henry II’s circuits now twice yearly  Meantime JPs dealt with law and order and enforcing King’s will  Important local link between Crown and counties  Chosen by the King  Directly accountable to him  Chosen from second tier of landowners  First Tier: Noblesdukes, earls, lords  Second Tier: GentrySir ….  Third Tier: YeomenMaster (Mr)

12   1487: Star Chamber Act  Established tribunal to hear cases against nobility  Especially who broke law against Livery & Maintenance and Retaining  Also complaints against abuses of privilege  In practice met rarely  Died out  But Council Learned in Law lasted  And oversaw punitive measures against leading subjects  Bonds and recognisances

13   Council of the North  Governed the north of England  Although most of north governed by council established in midlands  Run by Margaret Beaufort  Council of the Western Marches  Oversaw Welsh borderlands  Western Marches nominally run by Prince Arthur  But Lord Stanley exercised a lot of control there

14  Chancery  Court at Westminster  Feudal land disputes  Petitions of right  Although King couldn’t be sued, mistakes were acknowledged  Chancery dealt with them and king would make voluntary restitution Equity  Equity: king’s right to dispense justice when common law deficient  E.g. when defendant very powerful locally  E.g. in grey areas between canon and common law


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