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The Government of Henry VII

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1 The Government of Henry VII
Governing The Realm The Government of Henry VII

2 Parliament Called intermittently, as needed
Acts of Parliament – statue laws – best laws Agreement of lords spiritual, temporal and key commoners Established part of government But not necessary for King to govern Called intermittently, as needed Primarily to raise extra-ordinary taxation Also granted customs duties for life Pass Acts of Attainder Pass important laws – consent of political classes

3 Henry VII’s Parliaments
7th November 1485 – 4th March 1486 Customs duties for life Establish Henry VII’s reign from 21st August 1485 Acts of Attainder (after Bosworth) 9th November – 18th December 1487 Acts of Attainders (after Stoke) Establish new court ‘Star Chamber’ (misnomer)

4 Henry VII’s Parliaments
13th January 1489 – 27th February 1490 England went to the aid of Brittany Against France Taxation led to … Northern Rebellion Acts of Attainder 17th October 1491 – 5th March 1492 Funding for Expedition against Charles VIII of France Concerns over Perkin Warbeck

5 Henry VII’s Parliaments
14th October – 21st / 22nd December 1495 Perkin Warbeck After attempted landing in England and being chased from Ireland De Facto Act Duties of JPs extended To help them keep control of their localities 16th January – 13th March 1497 Raising extra-ordinary taxes to defend north from Perkin Warbeck 25th January – 1st April 1504 Reinforcing previous Acts against liveried retainers

6 The Great Council Consultative body Called five times by Henry VII
All nobles, councillors and burgesses Representatives of political classes of whole country Called five times by Henry VII Between 1487 and 1502

7 The Privy Council Advised King on matters of state, administration of law and order Varied in number and who was present Whoever was available when necessary Henry rarely present himself Loyalty most important attribute for members Divided into specific councils, or committees as necessary

8 The Privy Chamber Established 1495 At heart of Household
After treason involving high ranking member of Henry VII’s Household Sir William Stanley etc At heart of Household Saw king at most private, intimate Massive potential for influence his decisions Chamber servants low status Not members of nobility Henry VII increasingly withdrew into Privy Chamber

9 Committees / Councils Various established to tackle specific issues
Most (in)famous: Council Learned Established 1495 Ensure king received all feudal dues and entitlements Supervised collection of bonds and recognisances Operated without jury/ chance of appeal

10 Royal Commissions Established as necessary to investigate and deal with specific issues Oyer and Terminer was permanent Power to hear certain judicial cases As thought necessary by King Commission of the Peace Supplement other courts as necessary No legal training necessary to be named as part of commission Though usually had one or two lawyers

11 JPs Henry II’s circuits now twice yearly
Meantime JPs dealt with law and order and enforcing King’s will Important local link between Crown and counties Chosen by the King Directly accountable to him Chosen from second tier of landowners First Tier: Nobles dukes, earls, lords Second Tier: Gentry Sir …. Third Tier: Yeomen Master (Mr)

12 Star Chamber 1487: Star Chamber Act In practice met rarely
Established tribunal to hear cases against nobility Especially who broke law against Livery & Maintenance and Retaining Also complaints against abuses of privilege In practice met rarely Died out But Council Learned in Law lasted And oversaw punitive measures against leading subjects Bonds and recognisances

13 Regional Councils Council of the North Council of the Western Marches
Governed the north of England Although most of north governed by council established in midlands Run by Margaret Beaufort Council of the Western Marches Oversaw Welsh borderlands Western Marches nominally run by Prince Arthur But Lord Stanley exercised a lot of control there

14 Chancery & Equity Equity
Court at Westminster Feudal land disputes Petitions of right Although King couldn’t be sued, mistakes were acknowledged Chancery dealt with them and king would make voluntary restitution Equity: king’s right to dispense justice when common law deficient E.g. when defendant very powerful locally E.g. in grey areas between canon and common law

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