The past is a different country... In the past, SCOTLAND is a different country
So who are the Scots? What is Scotland? Or: How to make your students realize that this is complicated
The book Broun, D., Finlay, R.J., Lynch, M. (eds), Image and Identity: the making and re- making of Scotland through the ages, John Donald 1998 ISBN 0 85976 409 5
Scoti / Picti / fir nAlaban cluster 'Where on earth is Scotia?' cluster David I cluster Administration cluster Kingship / Allegiance cluster Edward I cluster William Wallace and Communitas Regni cluster Origins cluster Seminar groups / exercises
Scoti / Picti / fir nAlaban cluster General early nomenclature: Scoti = Gaels/Irish Bede > Scoti (Gaels) in Dal Riata (C7th) Picti > non-Gael inhabitants of Alba? Is Alba Pictland? Is it Scotia? Gaelic sources: Goideli (Gaels) living in Alba = fir Alban (C10) - meaning? Placenames: –Beinn an Albannaich in Argyll > what is the 'Albannach' here? –Stob Coir' an Albanaich > ditto.
'Where on earth is Scotia?' cluster Holyrood chronicle (1150-1189) –Scotia includes territory south of Forth - Edinburgh is clearly mentioned –Unclear about Moray ?
Holyrood chronicle (1150-1189) Fordun re 1214 –William I campaign: returned from Moray to Scotia ? ? ? 'Where on earth is Scotia?' cluster
Holyrood chronicle (1150-1189) Fordun re 1214 De Situ Albanie (1202-1214): Scotia= –1) mainland north of Forth/Clyde without Caithness ? –2) mainland north of Forth, minus Argyll & Lennox 'Where on earth is Scotia?' cluster ?
Holyrood chronicle (1150-1189) Fordun re 1214 De Situ Albanie (1202- 1214) Melrose Chronicle (1216) –Scotia: south of Moray, but includes Galloway & Merse 'Where on earth is Scotia' cluster
Holyrood chronicle (1150- 1189) –Includes south of Forth Fordun re 1214 –William I returned from Moray to Scotia De Situ Albanie (1202-1214): Scotia = –1) mainland north of Forth/Clyde (minus Caithness) –2) That, minus Argyll & Lennox Melrose Chronicle (1216) –Scotia: south of Moray, but includes Galloway & Merse ? ? ? ? 'Where on earth is Scotia?' cluster ?
David I cluster Who does he talk to in his charters? –'men of Moray and Scotia' –addressing French, English, Scots, Galwegians, Flemings, Welsh of his kingdom –the king's 'probi homines' Consider why they are called this; why they are 'his' men, >> questions of allegiance
Administration cluster 843 Cinaed mac Alpin Edinburgh added c. 960 Strathclyde post 1018 Treaties: –York 1237 (southern border) –Perth 1266 (Western Isles, Man) Other administrative expansion: –Galloway 1235 –Creation of sherrifdoms of Lorn, Kintyre, Skye 1293 > territory-based definition of 'Scotland' - standard 'central administration' view.
Kingship / Allegiance cluster David I charter: king's 'probi homines' Documentation from Great Cause or reign of Margaret: Communitas Regni –Authority explicitly derived from king –King as symbol of nation Bruce landholding in England pre- Wars of Independence > questions of allegiance 1314 Statute of Cambuskenneth limiting landholding to either Scotland or England
Examine actions with regard to John, 1297: –Removing king –Removing symbols of kingship –Removing symbols of royal saints > attack on national identity as vested in king Edward I cluster
Examine: –Letters & charters –diplomatic missions –Stirling Castle defense 1304 Focus on: –King not democracy or peasant rising or republic –Communitas Regni derive authority from, and represent, the King William Wallace and Communitas Regni cluster
Origins cluster Take the following: –1296 verse history of Scots –1301 Bisset processus –1309 Declaration of the Clergy –1317 Letter of Irish Kings in support of Edward Bruce –1320 Declaration of Arbroath Compare: –Account of Scottish origins –Account of Scottish travels –Connections with Irish –Treatment of King John Compare with findings of Scoti / Picti / fir nAlabain cluster
The 1320 situation Concepts: –Identity not linked to particular origin - accepted Scottish origin myth rewritten –Sole allegiance relevant (Cambuskenneth) –Legitimate royal line written out of the record <> until 1304, fight for legitimate king had been mainstay of motivation –Kingship of present king 'conditional', not upon legitimacy of lineage but upon proper service and effectiveness Division of kingdom's identity and sovereignty' from the 'legitimate dynasty'. (Watson) Rhetoric, but not the type available to Guardians in 1290 or even 1297.
Seminar groups / exercises Scoti / Picti / fir nAlaban cluster 'Where on earth is Scotia?' cluster David I cluster Administration cluster Kingship / Allegiance cluster Edward I cluster William Wallace and Communitas Regni cluster Origins cluster