Scottish Raids into Northern England - deepest raid c. 150 miles into Yorkshire..
Pope John XXII, 1316-1334 1317-19 Papal Truce …but papal bulls rejected by Robert as refused to style him as king… …truce broken by Scottish capture of Berwick April 1318 Excommunicated - no French aid...
Truce Dec 1319 to Xmas 1321 Bruce’s reasons:- Internal weakness - Soules plot - succession Loss of Irish campaign Papal problems Need to hold Berwick. Jan 1322 Scots burn Durham
External Scottish problems Plantagenet empire Papal favour to England No French support Disinherited Lords at Edward II’s court Edward Balliol 1322 - Lancaster killed
Scottish peace concluded Jan 1323 with Andrew Harcla, earl of Carlisle. 1. Separate Kingdoms 2. Six arbiters each to settle disputes. 3. If either party invaded other nation, would not damage counterpart’s lands/goods. 4. Harcla to persuade Edward II to agree within a year; if does so, Robert I to pay £27,000 in 10 years; to found 500m p.a. monastery for war dead; allow English king to choose wife for Bruce male heir. 5. No restoration of Disinherited.
May 1323 13 year Anglo- Scottish Truce 1324 full peace talks at Bamburgh collapse as Edward II refuses to give up Scotland… …despite:- war with France 1323-25; baronial opposition and estrangement from Queen; birth of Bruce son and heir, 5th March 1324. Tomb of Edward II.
Embassies of Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray. I. To Papacy 1323-4 - pleaded before Pope John XXII that Robert should be recognised as ‘King of Scots’; Pope wrote to Edward II to argue this OK. …but 1325, Pope rejected Scots’ appeal re excomm/interdict. II. To Paris late 1325 - Randolph and a number of clerics; negotiated Franco-Scottish mutual alliance - Treaty of Corbeil, April 1326
Rebellion of Isabella and Mortimer mid 1326... Deposition of Edward II, coro- nation of Edward III, 14 yoa, 1 Feb 1327.
A message of defiance to Edward III from Robert I Scottish raids resumed 2 Feb 1327 - siege of Norham castle - granting out lands in Northumbrland to Scots - intervention in Ulster July 1327
Robert I’s Conditions for Peace, October 1327. 1. Robert and heirs to have Scotland ‘free and quit’: sovereignty to be recognised by Edward III and barons. 2. David Bruce to wed Edward III’s sister, Joan. 3. No restoration of Disinherited. 4. An Anglo-Scottish military alliance v. all (except Scots’ allies, the French). 5. Scots to pay £20,000 war damages in 3 years. 6. English to help Scots lift excommunication.
Terms of Anglo-Scottish Peace March 1328. 1. Robert and heirs to hold Scotland ‘free, quit and entire’ of all claims of English overlordship (solemnly renounced). 2. David to wed Joan. 3. Military alliance (saving Franco-Scots alliance) and Scots not to aid England’s enemies in Ireland; and English not to interfere in Mann. 4. £20,000 war damages over 3 years. 5. English help to lift excommunication (by October1328) [6. Partial restoration of selected Disinherited Lords?]
Stone of Destiny - held at Westminster along with Black Rood of St Margaret. Also Scottish government records and any papers relating to English claim to Scotland… …their return discussed by Isabella and Scots at David and Joans’ wedding 12 July 1328.
6. Partial restoration of selected Disinherited Lords and church lands ? Evidence of Dr.s Cameron and Ross… - July 1328 Robert I grant to Sir Henry Percy of right to pursue all father’s lands in Scotland. Similar promises to other lords? - later English complaints that other lords not restored by Scots ‘in accordance with the treaty’. - some Scottish and English churches got cross-border lands back. - Sir James Douglas and Sir Henry Prendergast got families’ English lands back by 1329.
‘THE DISINHERITED’ - see Nicholson. Henry Percy - Urr in Galloway, Redcastle in Angus, Carrick? Henry Beaumont - Buchan earldom and Man. Thomas Wake - Liddesdale lordship in borders; Kirkandrews in south-west. Others:- Le Zouche; Umfraville (earls of Angus), Comyns, MacDougalls, Macdowells, Abernethy, Mowbray. Figurehead - Edward Balliol, heir to father King John since 1313-4; born 1283; in France since 1315 but back in English pay 1318-20, 1324 and 1331.
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