Presentation on theme: "Achievements of William Wallace, 1297-98: RECAP! 11 September 1297 - victory at Stirling; takes Stirling castle, Dundee, Edinburgh, Berwick town; English."— Presentation transcript:
Achievements of William Wallace, 1297-98: RECAP! 11 September 1297 - victory at Stirling; takes Stirling castle, Dundee, Edinburgh, Berwick town; English left with borders garrisons only. Nov-Dec 1297 - raids Northumberland March 1298 Parliament - elected Guardian - restores Government - fills bishopric of St Andrews - Lamberton - contact with France/Papacy - training forces
1297-8: Edward I preparing for Scottish campaign - well supported by subjects in parliament…thirst for revenge
Falkirk 22 July 1298 English army:- 3,000 horse 11,000 Welsh infantry 15,000 English foot Scots army 8-12,000 men Few horse… …cavalry deserted?
Scottish Schiltrom At Falkirk deployed statically - fixed palisades of stakes …not till 1314 at Bannockburn that deployed with mobility…
Guardians by December 1298 at least:- John Comyn of Badenoch Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick William Lamberton, new Bishop of St Andrews on continent October 1297 to mid 1299. Comyn & Bruce fighting English in south-west along with Soules, Umfraville, Balliols, Mowbrays, Fraser, Stewarts, and Wallace [who goes to continent mid 1299 to 1302-3?]
Scottish Council at Peebles, August 1299 Report of spy at Roxburgh castle, dated 20 August 1299 :- “ At the council Sir David Graham demanded the lands and goods of Sir William Wallace because he was leaving the kingdom without the leave or approval of the Guardians. And Sir Malcolm Wallace, Sir William’s brother, answered that neither his lands nor his goods should be given away, for they were protected by the peace in which Wallace had left the kingdom. At this the two knights gave each other the lie and drew their daggers. And since Sir David Graham was of Sir John Comyn’s following and Sir Malcolm Wallace of the earl of Carrick’s following, it was reported to the earl of Buchan that a fight had broken out without their knowledge; and Sir John Comyn leapt at the earl of Carrick and seized him by the throat, and the earl of Buchan turned on the bishop of St Andrews, declaring that treason and lèsemajesté were being plotted. Eventually, the Steward and others came between them and quietened them…” Barrow P. 107
1300 - Stalemate? Dec 1299 - Edward campaign aborted Jan 1300 - Scots retake Stirling castle By May 1300 Bruce replaced as Guardian by Ingelram d’Umfraville Both Scots and English now attack Annandale… Edward I new campaign:- John de St John Lieutenant in Scotland Jan 1300 9,000 men into south-west Scotland in mid-summer 1300
Caerlaverock siege - cost £10,000. English garrisons in Scotland cost £13,000 in 1300. Total of £30,000 for the year out of £64,000 total expenditure on wars.
Caerlaverock castle, Dumfriesshire - taken by Edward I, July 1300
Truce 30 Oct 1300 to May 1301 Scots press diplomatic efforts… Sir John Soules sole Guardian by 1301 Edward prepares for fresh campaign with 2 armies… King and prince Edward leading 7,000 English men and 1,500 Irish men...
English take Bothwell, Ayr, Turnberry. Fail to take Stirling or to really strengthen English garrison system. Edward I winters at Linlithgow…withdraws February 1302 October 1301 - John Balliol released by Pope to French.
Stalemate Broken, 1302? Anglo-French truce Treaty of Asnières, 26 January 1302 - included Scots…lands taken by Edward in Scotland in 1301 to be held by French - Robert Bruce resubmits to Edward I, early 1302 - Great Scottish embassy to Paris - Soules, Buchan, Lamberton, Steward, Umfraville etc.
11 July 1302 Battle of Courtrai - Flemish defeat French cavalry… 7 Nov 1302 - Edward I calls for army to assemble v. Scots 26 May 1303 2 December 1302 - Anglo-French peace of Amiens - Scots excluded