Presentation on theme: "The Rise and Triumph of Robert Bruce: 1306–1314. Bruce before 1306 Robert Bruce was the grandson of the competitor who took part in the Great Cause in."— Presentation transcript:
The Rise and Triumph of Robert Bruce: 1306–1314
Bruce before 1306 Robert Bruce was the grandson of the competitor who took part in the Great Cause in Robert Bruces father, the Earl of Carrick and Lord of Annandale, held extensive lands in France and England. In 1292 he resigned Carrick to his son, the future king. Barrow has argued Bruce had been behind Wallaces rebellion, hoping that Wallace would win and not putting his lands in jeopardy. Others have argued Bruce was not really interested in helping Wallace because he did not want to see Balliol returned to the throne.
Scottish rivalry Robert surrendered in 1302 to Edward. Since the Battle of Falkirk, Robert had led the Scottish resistance along with his fellow guardian, John the Red Comyn. However, Robert and John could not work together. After Balliol was discredited, his relatives the Comyn family believed they were next in line to the throne.
The war, phase 2 Edward I believed he had settled the Scottish problem after the execution of Wallace. The brutal killing and dismemberment of Wallace was supposed to have quelled the Scottish people. But this seems to have had the opposite effect, as many Scots were angered by Wallaces treatment. Bruce decided that with Edward returning to France it was now the right time to make his bid for the throne. But first he needed to gain the support of Comyn.
Murder at Greyfriars Comyn, John Balliols nephew, practically ruled most of northern Scotland. Bruce controlled most of the south west and central lowlands of Scotland. Neither could effectively rule Scotland without the consent of the other. So Robert invited his rival to a meeting at Greyfriars Abbey in Dumfries in 1306 (10 February). Bruce hoped to convince Comyn to join forces under Roberts leadership.
Murder at Greyfriars (continued) What actually happened at the meeting is unclear, but at some point Robert lost his temper and stabbed Comyn. At the time this was a shocking event. It meant that Robert was an instant criminal. Worse, there was the possibility of excommunication. This caused Robert to lose a lot of support in the south and most of the north of Scotland. scottish-history-heritage/1306- the-real-braveheart.html
Civil war Robert in one move had managed to cause what every Guardian of Scotland had tried to avoid since 1286 … civil war. In order to prevent himself from being arrested Robert rushed to get himself crowned at Scone. This was a political move: as king he could not be arrested for the murder of Comyn. He was inaugurated by Bishop Wishart and the Countess of Buchan.
Edwards reaction Edward was by no means happy at hearing of yet another rebellion. By June 1306, Bruces small army had been destroyed by Sir Aymer de Valences English army at Methven, near Perth. The defeat scattered Bruces party. Bruce fled west only to be routed near Loch Tay and defeated again by Comyns cousin, John MacDougall of Lorn, at Dail Righ. Edward confiscated all of Bruces lands, executed one of his brothers and captured his wife and sister at Kildrummy Castle, placing them in a wooden cage.
Cupar Kirkintilloch Cupar captured by Bishop Wishart VICTORY Kirkintilloch Wishart pays for siege engines; Bruce captures the castle VICTORY Methven Woods Bruce is surprised and defeated Defeat Dail Righ Bruce is defeated and flees Scotland Defeat Kildrummy Bruces brother and family are captured after the castle is betrayed Defeat Carrick Bruce and his two brothers try to win back their castle. His brothers are captured and executed Defeat
Guerrilla warfare Bruce spent the winter travelling the islands of Scotland gaining support. He returned to Ayrshire and raised a new army. For the next seven years he engaged in a war with the supporters of Comyn in the north east and the English in the central belt. Bruces victory in this civil war was a major achievement, considering how many Scottish nobles were against him. However, he was aided in 1307 by the death of Edward I.
Bruces successes In early 1307 Bruce returned to Scotland and captured Turnberry Castle (although two of his brothers were defeated in Galloway and executed by Edward I). He then defeated a small English force at Glen Trool. On 10 May 1307 at Louden Hill Bruce defeated the English, led by Aymer de Valence. Bruce then captured Inverlochy, Urquhart, Inverness and Nairn castles from the Comyns and their followers. In the battle of Inverurie in 1308 Bruce defeated his enemies in the north east. He then went on to devastate the area, burning crops and livestock. This was known as the Herschip of Buchan. At the same time, Bruces brother Edward led a successful attack on Galloway.
Bruces successes By late summer 1308 Bruce was able to launch a successful campaign against Alexander and John MacDougall in Argyll, achieving victory in the battle of the Pass of Brander and capturing Dunstaffnage Castle. Bruce held his first official parliament at St Andrews in March The Declaration of the Clergy was written in 1309 to justify Bruces kingship. Bruces supporters captured Perth Castle from the English in Bruce went on to gain control of Dumfries (1313), the Isle of Man (1313), Linlithgow (1313), Roxburgh (1313) and Edinburgh (1314). By October 1313 Bruce felt confident enough to issue an ultimatum to his nobles; they had one year to accept his authority before they would face losing their lands.
Bruces successes By late 1313 only Berwick and Stirling remained in English hands.
Reasons for Roberts successes Death of Edward I – Edward had been the driving force behind English opposition. Edward II had little or no interest in continuing the conflict. Robert proved to be an excellent commander. Robert rewarded his followers by giving them large grants of land taken from his enemies. Robert took the brave decision to destroy Scottish castles rather than risk them falling into the hands of the English.
Reasons for Roberts successes (continued) Robertss enemies in Scotland may have been powerful, but they were located in isolated areas. Thus, they couldnt support each other. Bruce quickly controlled Moray, allowing him internal lines of communication. The Scottish Church supported him and Bishop Wishart claimed fighting the English was the equivalent of going on a crusade. Bruce gained important foreign aid through Aberdeen. As long as Bruce controlled the north he had a reservoir of manpower and a place to escape.