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…for as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches,

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Presentation on theme: "…for as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 …for as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom, for that alone which no honest man gives up but with life itself.”

3 Types of Propaganda - Royal proclamations - declarations of government policy… read out at market days, sheriff courts... - Mass appeal - social control of pulpit... - Formal Works of Propaganda Letters to foreign powers, ‘Declarations’; these can also be used as tests of loyalty for greater subjects - Court image and behaviour…association with particular people, places and events.

4 Pedigree of Scottish propaganda… - 12/13thcentury Scottish appeals to papacy v. Archbisopric of York…1192 Scottish church secures special daughter status Treaties of Salisbury and Birgham protecting Scottish institutions, customs and laws… Baldred Bisset’s Processus …first mention of Gathelos and Scota origin legend and calls for papal aid for special daughter Two Declarations of Scottish clergy and those “nobles of community of realm owing allegiance to Lord Robert” as rightful King Declaration of Arbroath

5 Gathelos and Scota

6 Pedigree of Scottish propaganda… - 12/13thcentury Scottish appeals to papacy v. Archbisopric of York…1192 Scottish church secures special daughter status Treaties of Salisbury and Birgham protecting Scottish institutions, customs and laws… Baldred Bisset’s Processus …first mention of Gathelos and Scota origin legend and calls for papal aid for special daughter Two Declarations of Scottish clergy and those “nobles of community of realm owing allegiance to Lord Robert” as rightful King Declaration of Arbroath

7 Pope John XXII Robert refuses to receive Papal envoys without full title as King of Scots 17 Nov Robert excommunicated by Pope 18 Nov Pope summonses Robert and 4 bishops to Rome by 1 May 1320 Jan Scots absolved from oaths of allegiance to Bruce.

8 Declaration of Arbroath 6 April or so magnate seals - 8 accused of treason Aug 1320 March Newbattle council of Scots decides to send letter to Pope?

9 Declaration Author? Cleric trained in Europe in law and papal procedure… - cites classical, church authorities (Sallust, Thomas Aquinas, Salisbury, John of Paris)…uses metre favoured by papal curia - Abbot Bernard of Arborath, Chancellor? or Alexander Kinninmonth?

10 A.A.M. Duncan on the Making of the Declaration:- - True reflection of growing Scottish identity and patriotism? - or did barons know its content; were their seals collected forcibly?

11 Declaration Prototypes - a conventional European form of appeal to higher power through monarchs writing in name of baronage: - 13th century French and English examples English baronage reply to Scimus Filii St Andrews parliament Scots nobles’ reply to French king’s letter Irish Remonstrance in support of Bruce v. England - now believed to be a fake?

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13 A Middle Way? Bruce’s regime taking genuine feelings of Nationalism forged since 1286… …and associating his political cause with it. But not totally cynical - churchmen see it as necessary to preserve kingdom Bruce may even come to believe his own propaganda… - that he was always a patriot - Balliol a puppet - Alexander III Bruce’s rightful predecessor - common cause with Irish/Welsh

14 St Andrews Cathedral - consecrated by Robert I and Lamberton 1318… ‘bishop of the Scots’ - also site of royal nursery?

15 Key dates observed by Robert I? 19 March - death of Alexander III 9 June - St Columba feast day June - Bannockburn 26 Aug - St Ninian 11 Sept - battle of Stirling bridge 3 Nov - St Malachy 30 Nov - St Andrew

16 The re-sealed heart of Robert I, buried at Melrose Abbey in the borders; his body’s tomb at the royal Abbey of Dunfermline, Fife.


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