Presentation on theme: "The funeral of Alexander III, 22 March 1286.. Scottish Parliament, April 1286 - Oath to ‘nearest by blood by right who will inherit’ - Election of 6 Guardians."— Presentation transcript:
The funeral of Alexander III, 22 March 1286.
Scottish Parliament, April Oath to ‘nearest by blood by right who will inherit’ - Election of 6 Guardians of the ‘community of the realm’:- Alexander Comyn, earl of Buchan (d. 1290) Duncan, earl of Fife (d. 1289) Andrew Fraser, bishop of St Andrews Robert Wishart, bishop of Glasgow James Steward John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.
April 1286 ParliamentSee G.W.S. Barrow. ‘Bitter Pleading’ between Robert Bruce of Annandale Born c. 1220; son = Carrick heiress 1272; further lands in northern England and Garioch, Mar. V. John Balliol of Barnard Castle Born c. 1249; son of Devorguila Countess of Galloway; lands in northern England and Picardy
Dark period of Interregnum, Winter : Bruces attack Balliol and Comyn castles in south-west Sept Turnberry Band = Bruce and south-west allies? : the south-west laid waste… : Duncan earl of Fife murdered; earl of Buchan dies.
Edward I the Statesman:- France v. Castile Habsburg v. Savoy 1280s Aragon 1286… Treaty of Amiens 1279 & Treaty of Paris defined his lands in France Edward I the Warrior:- Henry III’s civil wars > Wales 1277/1282 [Statute of Wales - v. old Welsh feud laws] His planned crusade?
Treaty of Salisbury - Scotland, Norway, England; 6 Nov Maid to arrive in Scotland or England unbetrothed [n.b. in May 1289 Edward I had sought papal dispensation for Maid to wed his son and heir]. - Scots not to negotiate marriage without consulting Edward or Eric - Marriage only to proceed when Scotland peaceful - Maid’s advisors could ‘reform’ Scottish government - Conditions in Scotland to be reported to Edward I and Eric II. Nicholson p. 31.
Treaty of Birgham - March-July 1290
Treaty of Birgham, 18 July Barrow p (ratified by Edward I at Northampton, August 1290) - Maid to wed Prince Edward - “Kingdom of Scotland shall remain separate and divided from the kingdom of England…it shall be free and without subjection.” - Scottish Church and Law to be separate - Scottish subjects not to homage for lands to King of England, nor to be summonsed to English parliaments or Army. - Scottish subjects not to be subjected to English taxes (‘tallages’)
Maid dies en route to Scotland, Sept Oct bishop of St Andrews writes to Edward I:- - Bruce brought troops to parliament to seek support - asks Edward to intervene to avert ‘general slaughter of men’ - recommends Balliol as best choice
Balliol and Bruce make their pitch:- 16 Nov John Balliol Lord of Galloway, ‘heir to the kingdom of Scotland’ to Bishop Bek c. Sept 1290-April Appeal of the Seven Earls:- accused Bishop Fraser and Comyns of acting in private interests to make Balliol king; appeal to Edward I to uphold ancient right of seven earls of Scotland to choose king.
Process of Norham, June 1291; A.A.M. Duncan’s timetable - late May Edward I asks Scots to recognise his overlordship during joint Scottish-English parliament - 2 June, Scots reply that only king can answer June, Edward asks various competitors for recognition - 5 June - Robert Bruce, John de Hastings and Florence Count of Holland recognise Edward as overlord of Scotland June lesser competitors recognise Edward I - 11 June, John Balliol and Comyn of Badenoch last to submit - 12 June - secured Scottish castles and Guardians’ seal - 13 June, thus far all 4 Guardians, 1 other bishop and 8 earls, 15 barons recognised Edward as overlord. Watson p
Edward I fealty tour of Scotland, July 1291.
The Great Cause, July 1291 to November 1292
David I, ____________________|_________________________ || | (Malcolm IV, )(William I, )Earl David of Huntingdon | _________________________________________________| | | | MargaretIsabelAda | | | DervorguillaRobert Bruce ofHenry Hastings = John BalliolAnnandale, the | |Competitor | | | | John Balliol ofRobert Bruce, earl John Hastings Gallowayof Carrick = Isabella de Warenne | | | Edward BalliolRobert Bruce (King ) The Great Cause, July 1291-November 1292.
David I, ____________________|_________________________ || | (Malcolm IV, )(William I, )Earl David of Huntingdon | _________________________________________________| | | | MargaretIsabelAda | | | DervorguillaRobert Bruce ofHenry Hastings = John BalliolAnnandale, the Competitor The Great Cause, July 1291-November 1292.
John Balliol declared winner, 17 Nov Made king at Scone, 29 Nov 1292