Presentation on theme: "The funeral of Alexander III, 22 March 1286.. Scottish Parliament, April 1286 - Oath to ‘nearest by blood by right who will inherit’ - Election of 6 Guardians."— Presentation transcript:
Scottish Parliament, April 1286 - Oath to ‘nearest by blood by right who will inherit’ - Election of 6 Guardians of the ‘community of the realm’:- Alexander Comyn, earl of Buchan (d. 1290) Duncan, earl of Fife (d. 1289) Andrew Fraser, bishop of St Andrews Robert Wishart, bishop of Glasgow James Steward John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.
April 1286 ParliamentSee G.W.S. Barrow. ‘Bitter Pleading’ between Robert Bruce of Annandale Born c. 1220; son = Carrick heiress 1272; further lands in northern England and Garioch, Mar. V. John Balliol of Barnard Castle Born c. 1249; son of Devorguila Countess of Galloway; lands in northern England and Picardy
Dark period of Interregnum, 1286-90 Winter 1286-7: Bruces attack Balliol and Comyn castles in south-west Sept 1286 - Turnberry Band = Bruce and south-west allies? 1287-9: the south-west laid waste… 1289-90: Duncan earl of Fife murdered; earl of Buchan dies.
Edward I the Statesman:- France v. Castile 1276-80 Habsburg v. Savoy 1280s Aragon 1286… Treaty of Amiens 1279 & Treaty of Paris 1286 - defined his lands in France Edward I the Warrior:- Henry III’s civil wars > Wales 1277/1282 [Statute of Wales - v. old Welsh feud laws] His planned crusade?
Treaty of Salisbury - Scotland, Norway, England; 6 Nov 1289 - Maid to arrive in Scotland or England unbetrothed [n.b. in May 1289 Edward I had sought papal dispensation for Maid to wed his son and heir]. - Scots not to negotiate marriage without consulting Edward or Eric - Marriage only to proceed when Scotland peaceful - Maid’s advisors could ‘reform’ Scottish government - Conditions in Scotland to be reported to Edward I and Eric II. Nicholson p. 31.
Treaty of Birgham, 18 July 1290 - Barrow p. 27-8 (ratified by Edward I at Northampton, August 1290) - Maid to wed Prince Edward - “Kingdom of Scotland shall remain separate and divided from the kingdom of England…it shall be free and without subjection.” - Scottish Church and Law to be separate - Scottish subjects not to homage for lands to King of England, nor to be summonsed to English parliaments or Army. - Scottish subjects not to be subjected to English taxes (‘tallages’)
Maid dies en route to Scotland, Sept. 1290 7 Oct 1290 - bishop of St Andrews writes to Edward I:- - Bruce brought troops to parliament to seek support - asks Edward to intervene to avert ‘general slaughter of men’ - recommends Balliol as best choice
Balliol and Bruce make their pitch:- 16 Nov 1290 - John Balliol Lord of Galloway, ‘heir to the kingdom of Scotland’ to Bishop Bek c. Sept 1290-April 1291 - Appeal of the Seven Earls:- accused Bishop Fraser and Comyns of acting in private interests to make Balliol king; appeal to Edward I to uphold ancient right of seven earls of Scotland to choose king.
Process of Norham, June 1291; A.A.M. Duncan’s timetable - late May Edward I asks Scots to recognise his overlordship during joint Scottish-English parliament - 2 June, Scots reply that only king can answer - 2-5 June, Edward asks various competitors for recognition - 5 June - Robert Bruce, John de Hastings and Florence Count of Holland recognise Edward as overlord of Scotland. - 6-10 June lesser competitors recognise Edward I - 11 June, John Balliol and Comyn of Badenoch last to submit - 12 June - secured Scottish castles and Guardians’ seal - 13 June, thus far all 4 Guardians, 1 other bishop and 8 earls, 15 barons recognised Edward as overlord. Watson p. 11-15.
David I, 1124-53 ____________________|_________________________ || | (Malcolm IV, 1153-65)(William I, 1165-1214)Earl David of Huntingdon | _________________________________________________| | | | MargaretIsabelAda | | | DervorguillaRobert Bruce ofHenry Hastings = John BalliolAnnandale, the | |Competitor | | | | John Balliol ofRobert Bruce, earl John Hastings Gallowayof Carrick = Isabella de Warenne | | | Edward BalliolRobert Bruce (King 1306 -) The Great Cause, July 1291-November 1292.
David I, 1124-53 ____________________|_________________________ || | (Malcolm IV, 1153-65)(William I, 1165-1214)Earl David of Huntingdon | _________________________________________________| | | | MargaretIsabelAda | | | DervorguillaRobert Bruce ofHenry Hastings = John BalliolAnnandale, the Competitor The Great Cause, July 1291-November 1292.