2 Scottish Parliament, April 1286 - Oath to ‘nearest by blood by right who will inherit’- Election of 6 Guardians of the ‘community of the realm’:-Alexander Comyn, earl of Buchan (d. 1290)Duncan, earl of Fife (d. 1289)Andrew Fraser, bishop of St AndrewsRobert Wishart, bishop of GlasgowJames StewardJohn Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.
3 April 1286 Parliament See G.W.S. Barrow. ‘Bitter Pleading’ betweenRobert Bruce of AnnandaleBorn c. 1220; son = Carrick heiress 1272;further lands in northern Englandand Garioch, Mar.V.John Balliol of Barnard CastleBorn c. 1249; son of Devorguila Countessof Galloway; lands in northern England and Picardy
4 Dark period of Interregnum, 1286-90 Winter : Bruces attack Balliol and Comyn castles in south-westSept Turnberry Band = Bruce and south-west allies?1287-9: the south-west laid waste…: Duncan earl of Fife murdered; earl of Buchan dies.
5 Edward I the Statesman:- France v. CastileHabsburg v. Savoy 1280sAragon 1286…Treaty of Amiens &Treaty of Parisdefined his lands in FranceEdward I the Warrior:-Henry III’s civil wars> Wales 1277/1282[Statute of Wales - v. oldWelsh feud laws]His planned crusade?
6 Treaty of Salisbury - Scotland, Norway, England; 6 Nov 1289 - Maid to arrive in Scotland or England unbetrothed[n.b. in May 1289 Edward I had sought papal dispensation forMaid to wed his son and heir].- Scots not to negotiate marriage without consulting Edward or Eric- Marriage only to proceed when Scotland peaceful- Maid’s advisors could ‘reform’ Scottish government- Conditions in Scotland to be reported to Edward I and Eric II.Nicholson p. 31.
8 Treaty of Birgham, 18 July 1290 - Barrow p. 27-8 (ratified by Edward I at Northampton, August 1290)- Maid to wed Prince Edward- “Kingdom of Scotland shall remain separate and divided fromthe kingdom of England…it shall be free and without subjection.”- Scottish Church and Law to be separate- Scottish subjects not to homage for lands to Kingof England, nor to be summonsed to English parliaments or Army.- Scottish subjects not to be subjected to English taxes (‘tallages’)
9 Maid dies en route to Scotland, Sept. 1290 7 Oct bishop of St Andrews writes to Edward I:-- Bruce brought troops to parliament to seek support- asks Edward to intervene to avert ‘general slaughter of men’- recommends Balliol as best choice
10 Balliol and Bruce make their pitch:- 16 Nov John Balliol Lord of Galloway, ‘heir to thekingdom of Scotland’ to Bishop Bekc. Sept 1290-April Appeal of the Seven Earls:-accused Bishop Fraser and Comyns of acting inprivate interests to make Balliol king; appealto Edward I to uphold ancient right ofseven earls of Scotland to choose king.
12 Process of Norham, June 1291; A.A.M. Duncan’s timetable - late May Edward I asks Scots to recognise his overlordship duringjoint Scottish-English parliament- 2 June, Scots reply that only king can answer- 2-5 June, Edward asks various competitors for recognition- 5 June - Robert Bruce, John de Hastings and Florence Count ofHolland recognise Edward as overlord of Scotland.June lesser competitors recognise Edward I- 11 June, John Balliol and Comyn of Badenoch last to submit- 12 June - secured Scottish castles and Guardians’ seal- 13 June, thus far all 4 Guardians, 1 other bishop and 8 earls,15 barons recognised Edward as overlord. Watson p
16 The Great Cause, July 1291-November 1292. David I,____________________|_________________________| | |(Malcolm IV, ) (William I, ) Earl David of Huntingdon|_________________________________________________|| | |Margaret Isabel AdaDervorguilla Robert Bruce of Henry Hastings= John Balliol Annandale, the || Competitor || | |John Balliol of Robert Bruce, earl John HastingsGalloway of Carrick= Isabella de Warenne || |Edward Balliol Robert Bruce (King )
17 The Great Cause, July 1291-November 1292. David I,____________________|_________________________| | |(Malcolm IV, ) (William I, ) Earl David of Huntingdon|_________________________________________________|| | |Margaret Isabel AdaDervorguilla Robert Bruce of Henry Hastings= John Balliol Annandale, theCompetitor