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Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815 - 1850.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815 - 1850."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815 - 1850

2 The Conservative Order, 1815-1830 The Peace Settlement Congress of Vienna, September 1814 Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria (1773- 1859) Restore legitimate monarchs to preserve tradition Monarch share a common interest in stability Dominated the Congress of Vienna Restoration of the Bourbons in France and Spain Principle of Legitimacy Balance of political and military power through policy Poland Containment of France Quadruple Alliance UK, Austria, Prussia and Russia…France ultimately joins Louis XVIII restored to French throne Outcome keeps Europe peaceful for almost 100 years

3 Eugene Delacroix Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi

4 Europe after the Congress of Vienna ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.

5 The Ideology of Conservatism Dominate political philosophy after the fall of Napoleon Edmund Burke (1729-1797), Reflections on the Revolution in France Emphasized the dangers of radical change Society is a contract that should strive to preserve tradition Common good is more important than individualism Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821) Monarchy divinely sanctioned, guarantees order Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe Four congresses, 1818-1822 Outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy Intervention The Revolt of Latin America  Simón Bolívar (1783-1830)  José de San Martín (1778-1850)  Monroe Doctrine, 1823 British use their navy to keep the revolutions rolling

6 Latin America in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.

7 The Greek Revolt (1821-1832) European intervention Role of Romanticism Treaty of Adrianople, 1829 Conservative Domination: The European States Great Britain: Rule of the Tories Britain governed by the aristocratic landowning classes  Pockets and rotten boroughs  Large, new industrial cities not represented Whigs starting to get support from the industrial middle class Peterloo Massacre, 1819  Protest over high bread prices Minor reforms Restoration of France Moderation of Louis XVIII, 1814-1824 Charles X, 1824-1830

8 The Balkans by 1830 ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.

9 Intervention in the Italian States and Spain Nine states created in Italy by the Congress of Vienna Fredinand VII in Spain, 1814-33 Repression in Central Europe 38 sovereign states Liberal and national movements in the German states  King Frederick William III of Prussia(1797-1840) Burschenschaften movement, student societies, 1817-1819 Karlsbad Decrees 1819 Disband the Burschenshaften Censorship of the German Press Government supervision of most German universities Monitored and restricted university activities Austrian stagnation Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars Alexander I, 1801-1825 Speransky reforms Nicholas I, 1825-1855 Decembrist Revolt, 1825 Police state created  Fear of internal and external revolts

10 Ideologies of Change- Liberalism Economic liberalism (classical economics) Reverend Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), Essay on the Principles of Population  Population growth at a geometric rate while food increases at a slower arithmetic rate  Population must be kept in check for progress to be made David Ricardo (1772-1823), Principles of Political Economy  Iron law of wages  Increase in population means more workers which causes wages to fall below subsistence level Emphasis on individual freedom John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, On the Subjection of Women Liberty of the individual  Men and women do not have different natures Women’s rights Embraced by industrial middle class Burschenschaften Student societies of Germany

11 Nationalism Radical encouragement to shift loyalty away from existing states and rulers Part of a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs Allied with liberalism Profound effect on revolutions of Belgium, Poland and Italy Early Socialism Charles Fourier (1772-1838) Utopian socialist Model communities, phalansteries Robert Owen (1771-1858) New Lanark, Scotland New Harmony, Indiana Louis Blanc (1813-1882) Social problems require government assistance National Workshops  Unemployment compensation through public works projects

12 The Distribution of Language in Nineteenth-Century Europe ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.

13 Women attracted to socialism Zoé Gatti de Gamond Flora Tristan (1803-1844) Utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism Revolution and Reform, 1830-1850 Another French Revolution Charles X issues July Ordinances, July 26, 1830 Censorship of the press Dissolves the legislative assembly Reduced electorate July Revolution 1830 Louis-Philippe succeeds Charles X Louis-Philippe, 1830-1848 Sided with the Party of Resistance Cooperated with Francois Guizot Favors the upper bourgeoisie Party of Movement Party of Resistance

14 Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy Nationalism fuels the outburst Belgians revolt, 1830 Independence recognized Considered the most successful nationalist revolution of the era Austrian troops crush revolt in northern Italian states Russians put down revolt in Poland, 1831 Reform in Great Britain Thomas Macaulay Reform would prevent radical outbursts Reform Bill of 1832 Upper middle-class benefit Poor Law of 1834 Making state welfare a position of misery would encourage the poor to find profitable jobs Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846 Revolutions of 1848 Yet Another French Revolution Louis-Philippe fails to initiate reform  Abdication, February 24, 1848

15 Provisional government  National workshops  “June days” Second Republic, November 4, 1848  Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte  Napoleon III Revolution in Central Europe Agricultural depression Revolt of handicraft workers Frederick William IV, 1840-1860 Frankfurt Assembly 1848  Failed to create a united Germany Austrian Empire 1848  Metternich flees the country and is ultimately exiled  Louis Kossuth, Hungary  Francis Joseph I, 1848-1916

16 The Revolutions of 1848-1849 ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.

17 Revolts in the Italian States Divided into states controlled by other European powers Risorgimento (Resurgence)  Failed due to opposition from France, Austria and the Pope Pius IX Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)  Young Italy  Nationalist organization Failures of 1848 Divisions among the revolutionaries  Failure to extend universal suffrage Divisions supporting self-government Growth of the United States Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804), Federalist Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Republican John Marshall (1755-1835) Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), democracy Mass white male democracy

18 The Emergence of an Ordered Society Development of New Police Forces Parisian serjeants 1829 First professional civilian police force Robert Peel, London “bobbies” Politician who introduced legislation establishing London’s professional police force Berlin’s Schutzmannschaft Poverty as a source of crime Institutes Prison Reform Create a more disciplined and law- abiding society Auburn Prison Walnut Street model

19 Culture in an Age of Reaction and Revolution: The Mood of Romanticism The Characteristics of Romanticism Pantheistic worship of nature Sentiment, suffering and self-sacrifice Reverence for history that inspired nationalism Reaction to the excesses of Industrialization Reaction against the Enlightenment’s preoccupation with reason The Writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), The Sorrows of the Young Werther The literary model for the early Romantics Historical consciousness Grimm brothers Walter Scott Gothic literature Edgar Allen Poe The Fall of The House of Usher Mary Shelley Frankenstein Individualism Drug Experimentation

20 Romantic Poets Poetry served as the most important form of expression for Romantic literature Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822) Lord Byron (1788-1824) William Wordsworth (1770-1850) Mechanistic materialism

21 Romanticism in Art and Music Landscapes, God and nature Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) Moods of nature “airy visions, painted with tinted stream” Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) Passion for color Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Bridged gap between Classicism and Romanticism Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) Program music Revival of Religion in the Age of Romanticism François-René de Chateaubriand Father of French Romanticism (1768-1848) Genius of Christianity, 1802 Protestant evangelicalism and personal salvation Catholicism grows, especially in Germany Gothic architecture

22 Cologne Cathedral

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