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European Revolutions (1815-1848) THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS.

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Presentation on theme: "European Revolutions (1815-1848) THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Revolutions ( ) THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS

2 Congress of Vienna – The “Quadruple Alliance”  Austria – Prince Metternich  Very conservative, resists liberals and reformers  England – Robert Steward, Lord Castlereagh  Wanted to surround France with bigger and stronger countries  Prussia – Karl von Hardenberg  Wanted to recover Prussian territory and take control of the rebel kingdom of Saxony  Russia – Tsar Alexander I  Back and forth on liberal and reactionary views, wanted a “free” and “independent” Poland of which he would be king

3 Goals of the Congress of Vienna  Legitimacy  restoring the power to ruling families disposed by the revolutionary warfare  Compensation  territorial rewards to states that had made sacrifices to defeat Napoleon  Balance of Power  Arraigning the map of Europe that that no one state could upset the international order  Congress System  Meetings held periodically by the great powers to defend the status quo

4 Industrial Revolution - Review  Where did it begin?  Roots of the Industrial Revolution? (4)  Changes in:  Class Structure  Social Construct  Capitalism  Class Disparity

5 Impact of the “isms”  Romanticism  Conservatism  Liberalism  Nationalism  Socialism

6 Conservative Backlash  Conservative leaders had “contained” the liberal ideals  Growing disconnect between the traditional ruling class and the middle class which embodied many of these “new” ideals  Postwar Repression ( )  England  enacted a number of acts  France  “Restoration” period of Louis XVIII, constitutional monarchy  Austria & Germany  Ruled by Prince Metternich  Russia  ruled in traditional authoritarian style

7 Europe in Crisis (Revolutions I: )  Nationalism, liberalism, socialism all factors in the outbreaks of revolutions  Outside of Europe  Monroe Doctrine (1823), Latin American revolution

8 Europe in Crisis (Revolutions I: )  Spain ( ) FAILED  Liberals rose up against King Ferdinand VII  crushed by a French army  Italy ( ) FAILED  Secret liberal-nationals rose up against Ferdinand I  crushed by an Austrian army  Greek Revolt ( ) SUCCESS!  Nationalist uprising against the Ottoman Empire  England, France and Russia all assisted the Greeks

9 Europe in Crisis (Revolutions I: )  Russia, Decembrist Uprising (1825) FAILED  Alexander I died unexpectedly, crisis over succession  Nicholas was to take the throne  highly conservative  Liberals rose up (Decembrists were noble opponents)  Russia became a police state  Shuts down Polish Revolution, Hungarian nationalism, wants to expand into the Ottoman Empire (Crimean War)  England  Chooses Reform  Repealed some acts, updated outdated laws, accommodated for new rising merchant & middle class

10 Europe in Crisis (Revolutions II: )  France  July Revolution (1830) SUCCESS  Charles X tried to restore the Old Regime  Replaced Charles X with Louis-Philippe the “bourgeois king”  France controlled by the bourgeois and bankers/businessmen “When Frances sneezes, the rest of Europe catches a cold” This revolution was a spark for other countries!

11 Europe in Crisis (Revolutions II: )  Belgium ( ) SUCCESS  Merged with Holland in 1815  Revolt against the Dutch  Dutch army was defeated  A national congress wrote a liberal constitution and named Leopold of Saxe-Coburg ( ) as king  Poland ( ) FAILED  Challenged Russian domination of Poland, crushed by the Russian army  Poland became “a land of graves and crosses”

12 Europe in Crisis (Revolutions II: )  Italy ( ) FAILED  Wanted to unify Italy (Italian nationalists)  Crushed by the Austrians again  Germany ( ) FAILED  Freedoms were restricted  German students and professors led the liberal/national charge  liberal constitutions  Crushed by the Germany Confederation

13 Revolutions of 1848  Similar conditions existed across Europe

14 Revolutions of 1848: Republicanism

15 Revolutions of 1848: Nationalism Resisted

16 Revolutions of 1848: Liberalism Halted

17 Revolutions of 1848: Victorian Compromise

18 Why the Revolutions Failed

19 Moving Forward


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