Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815 - 1850."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism,
The Conservative Order (1815 – 1830) The Peace Settlement Quadruple Alliance: Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia Defeated Napoleon Congress of Vienna (1814 – 1815) Created policies to maintain European balance of power Lead by Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austrian foreign minister) Believed European monarchs shared common interest of stability The principal of legitimacy Considered it necessary to restore legitimate monarchs to preserve traditional institutions Restore Bourbon monarchy to the throne in Louis XVIII A new balance of power Strengthen countries to prevent one country from dominating Napoleon’s escape from Elba prompted the Congress of Vienna to push France’s borders back to those of 1790 as punishment for enthusiastically accepting him back
Possible Test Question At the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian representative Prince Metternich pursued the policy of legitimacy, meaning He wished to legitimate the French defeat. He sought legitimate control over central Europe to benefit Austria. He endeavored to restore legitimate monarchs on their thrones and to preserve traditional institutions and values. He sought legitimate proof of England’s economic and industrial support of Austria. He demanded that the state churches, Catholic or Protestant, become the primary rulers throughout all of Europe.
Possible Test Question The Congress of Vienna Gave Prussia complete control over Polish lands. Created policies that would maintain the European balance of power. Failed to achieve long-lasting peace among European nations. Treated France leniently following Napoleon’s One Hundred Days. Sanctioned the political power of the bourgeoisie.
Conservative Ideology Conservatism became the dominant political thought after the fall of Napoleon From Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution of France Emphasized the dangers of radical political change Conservative political thought Obedience to political authority Organized religion was crucial to social order Hated revolutionary upheavals Advocated slow, gradual changes Unwilling to accept liberal demands or representative government Wanted to preserve achievements of previous generations while sacrificing individual rights for the well being of the community
Possible Test Question Conservatism, the dominant political philosophy following the fall of Napoleon Was rejected by the Congress of Vienna as inappropriate in the new liberal age. Expressed that individual rights remained the best guide for human order. Was exemplified by Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France, emphasizing the dangers of radical and “rational” political change. Was too radical for Joseph de Maistre, the French spokesman for a cautious, evolutionary conservatism. Advocated the creation of oligarchic republics.
New Map of Europe Congress of Vienna sought to weaken France and maintain a balance power Created a new enlarged Netherlands Enlarged Sardina Prussia was given territory on the Rhine Germanic Confederation (Germanic States) Kingdom of Poland Austria got territory in northern Italy Congress of Vienna managed to prevent an all out European conflict for almost a century
Map 21.1: Europe after the Congress of Vienna
Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe The Concert of Europe Fear of Revolution & war led to development of the Concert of Europe Met several times: congresses Quintuple Alliance Withdraw armies from France, add France to the Concert of Europe
Principle of intervention Outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy Great powers reserved the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitimate monarchs to their throne Britain objected to the principle of intervention leading to a breakdown in the Concert of Europe Austrian troops crushed Italian rebellion French troops crushed Spanish rebellion Britain’s refusal kept Continental Europe from interfering in revolutions in Latin America
Possible Test Question The most important factor in preventing the European overthrow of the newly independent nations of Latin America was European economic collapse. The Monroe Doctrine guiding American foreign policy. The sheer size of South America. Growing support for pacifism in Europe. British naval power.
The Revolt of Latin America Bourbon monarchy of Spain toppled Latin American countries begin declaring independence Simón Bolivar ( ) Freed Columbia (1819) & Venezuela (1821) José de San Martín ( ) Freed Chile (1817) San Martin & Bolivar joined to crush the last Spanish authority in Lima, Peru (1821) After 1825, almost all of Latin America was free of colonial domination Continental Europe looked to intervene, U.S. passed the Monroe Doctrine pledging to support Latin American countries British Navy was more of a deterrent than U.S. words Britain began to dominate Latin American economy British merchants & investors moved in
Map 21.2: Latin America in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
The Greek Revolt, Intervention could support revolution as well Greek revolt in, 1820 European sympathy for their cause grew Britain, France, Russia at war French & British navy destroyed Ottoman Armada Russia declared war on Ottoman Empire Treaty of Adrianople, 1829 Ended the Russian-Turkish War Greece was declared an independent kingdom
Possible Test Question The Greek revolt was successful largely due to A well-trained guerrilla army. The Turks’ lack of fortitude. European intervention. Superior Greek military tactics. Adopting a policy of peaceful coexistence.
Conservative Domination: The European States Great Britain: Rule of the Tories Landowning classes dominate Parliament Tory and Whig factions; Tories dominate Corn Law of 1815 – placed a high tariff on foreign grain – put a financial strain on working classes Peterloo Massacre (1819) – military fired on English protesting high bread prices
Restoration in France Louis XVIII (r – 1824) Kept some of the Revolutionary changes Accepted some of the Napoleonic Code Property Rights Bicameral Legislature Established Ultraroyalists – hoped to return to a monarchical system & criticized the king’s willingness to compromise
Intervention in the Italian States and Spain Conservative reaction against the forces of nationalism and liberalism Austrian forces intervene in Italy French forces intervene in Spain Repression in Central Europe Metternich and the forces of reaction Liberal and national movements in Germany Initially weak & remained controlled by landowning class Burschenshaften – students societies, dedicated to a free and united Germany (symbol of growing liberalism and nationalism) Karlsbad Decrees (1819) Metternich had this decree drawn up by the Germanic Confederation in response to the Burschenschaften The Karlsbad Decrees (1819) Disbanded the Burschenschaften Censored the press Supervised universities Restrictions on university activities
Possible Test Question The Karlsbad Decrees of 1819 did all of the following except Disband the Burschenshaften. Impose censorship on the German press. Placed most German universities under close government supervision. Dissolved several smaller German states. Placed restrictions upon university activities.
Russia Start of 19 th century, Russia was rural, agricultural, and autocratic Alexander I ( ) Raised on ideas of the Enlightenment & seemed sympathetic to reform Leader of Russia during Napoleonic Wars Reformed the Russian education system After the defeat of Napoleon, his rule turned stricter leading to opposition Used censorship to govern the people Nicholas I ( ) Military leaders of the Northern Union rebelled against Nicholas I taking the throne (Decembrist Revolt) Revolt was crushed by loyal troops Russia became a police state (secret police) Nicholas feared revolutions in Russia & in Europe
Possible Test Question Tsar Alexander I of Russia did all of the following except Become more reactionary after the defeat of Napoleon. Grant a constitution, freeing the serfs. Reform the Russian education system. Revert to a program of arbitrary censorship as a tool of governing. Was the leader of Russia during the Napoleonic Wars.
Ideologies of Change Liberalism Economic liberalism (classical economics) Laissez-faire – free from constraints Supply & Demand would dictate the market Thomas Malthus Essay on the Principles of Population Presented a case against government intervention Misery & poverty were simply the inevitable result of the law of nature; no government or individual should interfere with its operation David Ricardo Principles of Political Economy Iron Law of Wages Wages are cyclical, raising them arbitrarily is futile Increase in population means more workers, lower wages, resulting in starvation & misery, reducing the population, which increases wages, causing a higher birth rate and the cycle continues
Possible Test Question The argument that population must be held in check for any progress to take place was popularized by Adam Smith. David Ricardo. Joeseph de Maistre. Edmund Burke. Thomas Malthus.
Political liberalism Ideology of political liberalism Believed in individual freedom Protection of civil liberties Freedom before the law, assembly, speech, press Modeled after the Declaration of Independence & the Rights of Man & Citizen The rights of a representative assembly (legislature) to make laws Political liberalism was embraced by the industrial middle class They wanted voting rights so they could share power with the landowning class but they didn’t advocate extending those rights to the lower class
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty Supported the absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects Supported Women’s rights On the Subjection of Women The legal subordination of one sex to the other was wrong Important work for later suffrage movements
Possible Test Question The foremost group embracing liberalism was made up by Factory workers. The industrial middle class. Radical aristocrats. Army officers. The landed gentry.
Nationalism Part of a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs The community is called a “nation” Formation of political loyalty Nationalist ideology Arose from the French Revolution and spread across Europe National unity in Germany or Italy threatened to upset the balance of power established with the Congress of Vienna An independent Hungarian state would breakup the Austrian Empire Conservatives tried to repress nationalism (Concert of Europe) Allied with liberalism Liberals believed their goals could only be realized by people who ruled themselves Nationalists believed that stronger states comprised of their own people would eventually link communities and ultimately humanity
Map 21.3: The Distribution of Language in Nineteenth-Century Europe
Early Socialism Utopian Socialists Against private property & competitive spirit of capitalism Charles Fourier (1772 – 1838) Proposed the creation of small model cooperative communities called “phalansteries” People would live & work together for mutual benefit Robert Owen ( ) British cotton manufacturer who believed human goodness would reveal itself if people worked together Developed a healthy community in Scotland but failed in U.S.
Early Socialism Louis Blanc (1813 – 1882) Thought social problems could be solved by government assistance Denounced competition as an economic evil Proposed establishing workshops that would manufacture goods for public sale The state would finance the workshops but the workers would own and operate them These national workshops would become little more than unemployment compensation units through public works projects Female Supporters Utopian socialism attracted many women who hoped to help their gender by reordering society Flora Tristan (1803 – 1844) Traveled Europe demanding equality for the sexes She was largely ignored Socialism remained a fringe movement in the early 19 th century but it laid the groundwork for later attacks on capitalism
Possible Test Question The French socialist, Flora Tristan Demanded absolute equality of the sexes. Established a cooperative socialist community at New Harmony, Indiana. Felt that the greatest evil in society was the profit motive in business and economics. Started the international “Women’s Social and Political Union.” Condemned Karl Marx as being too revolutionary.
Revolution and Reform, Another French Revolution Charles X ( ) Liberals were winning elections which angered the king Issued the July Ordinances Rigid censorship Dissolved the legislative assembly Reduced the electorate in preparation for new elections Immediate revolt by liberals
Louis-Philippe ( ) Group of moderate liberals appealed to Louis- Philippe, the Duke of Orleans to become the constitutional king of France Charles X fled to Great Britain & a new monarchy was born The bourgeois monarch – support for his rule came from the upper middle class Constitutional changes favor the upper bourgeoisie Lower bourgeoisie & working class are disappointed that they are excluded from political power
Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy (Nationalism) Primary driving force for these three 1830 revolution was nationalism. Austrian Netherlands (Catholic Belgium) given to (Protestant) Dutch Republic by the Congress of Vienna Nationalistic revolt by the Belgians (Protestants) established a constitutional monarchy Revolt attempts in Poland and Italy Austrians crushed Italian revolution Russians crushed Polish revolution
The Revolution of 1830
Possible Test Question The most successful nationalistic European revolution in 1830 was in Poland. Germany. Italy. The United Provinces. Belgium.
Reform in Great Britain The Reform Act of 1832 New political power for industrial urban communities (Whigs take power over Tories) July Revolution in France set the stage for change Benefited the upper middle class (wealthy industrial middle class) Reform Act of 1832 – Industrial communities gained a voice in voting Number of voters increased from 478,000 – 814,000 Artisans, industrial workers & lower middle classes still had no vote New Reform Legislation Poor Law of 1834 – based on the theory that giving aid to the poor & unemployed would encourage laziness The poor were crowded into workhouses where the living & working conditions were intentionally miserable so people would be encouraged to find employment Repeal of the Corn Laws (1846) Economic liberals advocated free trade & lower bread prices for workers
Possible Test Question The Reform Bill of 1832 in Britain primarily benefited the Landed aristocracy. Peasants. Working class. Clergy. Upper middle-class.
The Revolutions of 1848 Yet Another French Revolution 1846 – agricultural & industrial depression 1847 – 33% unemployment rate in Paris Government was corrupt & failed to initiate reform No suffrage for the middle class Louis-Philippe abdicates, February 24, 1848 (fled to Britain) Provisional government established Elections to be by universal manhood suffrage National workshops – jobs for unemployed Growing split between moderate and liberal republicans Moderate Government – most of France Radical liberals – Parisian working class
Provisional government established workshops under the influence of Louis Blanc Unemployed workers got jobs raking leafs, ditch digging & other manual labor jobs Unemployed workers in the national workshops rose from 10,000 to 120,000, emptying the treasury & prompting moderates to halt the programs Became little more than unemployment compensation units through public works projects Workers refused to except the decision leading to four days of fighting in this working class revolt (government prevailed) Second Republic established New Constitution ratified Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected in December, 1848 (nephew of Napoleon)
Map 21.4: The Revolutions of 1848 – 1849
Revolution in Central Europe French revolts led to promises of reform Frederick William IV ( ) Germanic state rulers made concessions to the growing revolutionary sentiments Freedom of press, abolishing censorship, new constitutions, & working towards a united Germany Frankfurt Assembly All German parliament elected by universal male suffrage Purpose was to prepare a constitution for a united Germany Frederick William IV refused the offer of “emperor of the Germans” Frankfurt Assembly disbanded without accomplishing their goal of a united Germany
Possible Test Question In 1848, the Frankfurt Assembly Unanimously adopted a Grossdeutsch solution for the Germanies. Succeeded in making Prussia’s Frederick William IV president of a united Germany. Failed in its attempt to create a united Germany. Gained the support of Austria. Declared its solidarity with revolutionary France.
Austrian Empire Louis Kossuth, Hungary Advocated the formation of a legislature Metternich flees the country after demonstrations begin & he is dismissed from office In Vienna, revolutionary forces took control calling for a constituent assembly Hungary’s wishes granted Own Legislature National army Control over its foreign policy & budget
Austria Cont’d Emperor Ferdinand I & Austrian officials made concessions to revolutionaries but waited for an opportunity to reassert conservative control Tried to capitalize on division between radical & moderate revolutionaries Military forces suppressed Czech rebels Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of his nephew Francis Joseph I ( ) Nicholas I of Russia sent in troops to defeat Kossuth’s forces and suppress the revolution Austrian emperor & propertied classes remained in power
Revolts in the Italian States Giuseppe Mazzini ( ) Risorgimento - resurgence Founded organization called Young Italy, 1831 Goal: a united Italy Cristina Belgioioso ( ) Wealthy aristocrat who worked for a united Italy Italian citizens rose up in 1848 Charles Albert (r – 1849) King of Italian state of Piedmont took up to the call for a war of liberation from Austria The revolution (resurgence) was defeated by combined forces from the Pope, France and Austria.
Possible Test Question Giuseppe Mazzini’s nationalist organization, Young Italy, Liberated Italy’s northern provinces from Austrian control. Failed to achieve his goal of “resurgence” by Helped inspire successful liberal constitutions throughout Italy. Used the liberals in governments to extend suffrage to Italy’s working classes. Allied itself with the papacy to drive France out of Italy.
The Failures of 1848 Division within the revolutionaries Radicals and liberals Liberties from propertied classes failed to extend male suffrage to the working classes Liberals were concerned about their property & security & the fear of a social revolution by the working class Divisions among nationalities Hungarians demanded autonomy from Austrians but refused to offer the same autonomy to their minorities
The Maturing of the United States The American Constitution contained forces of liberalism and nationalism Alexander Hamilton ( ), Federalist Favored a financial program that would establish a strong central government Thomas Jefferson ( ), Republican Feared centralization & consequences for popular liberties Effects of War of 1812 Brought an end to the Federalists who had opposed the war John Marshall ( ) Strengthened the Supreme Court (checks Congress) Andrew Jackson ( ) and democracy Male suffrage – dropped property qualification
The Emergence of an Ordered Society Development of a regular system of police Purpose of police Preserve property & lives, maintain domestic order, investigate crime, & arrest offenders & to create a disciplined law-abiding society French Police – Known as Serfients First appearance of new kind of police in Paris British Bobbies “Bobbies” introduced in 1829 – 1830 Goal was to prevent crime Crime and Social Reform New poor laws Moral reformers Organized religion Prison Reform The United States takes the lead (Auburn Prison in New York, Walnut Street Prison in Philadelphia) Prison reform in France and Britain
Possible Test Question Professional civilian police forces known as serfients first appeared in 1829 in Germany. Russia. Italy. Bavaria. France.
The Characteristics of Romanticism Emotion, sentiment, and inner feelings Reaction to Enlightenment’s preoccupation with reason Romantic movement had its roots in Germany Tragic figure Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ( ), The Sorrows of the Young Werther Literary model for early Romantics Individualism – interest in unique traits of each person Rebellion against middle-class conventions – changes in hair, clothes Interest in the past Grimm Brothers (published local fairy tales) Hans Christian Andersen (fairy tales from Denmark) Walter Scott Best selling novels (Ivanhoe) Gothic literature Edgar Allan Poe ( ) Mary Shelley ( )
Possible Test Question The romantic movement can be viewed as a(n) Reaction against the Enlightenment’s preoccupation with reason. Continuation of Enlightenment ideals and practices. Attempt to create a socialist society. Movement of lower-class, less literate people. Fascination with war and conflict.
Romantic Poets and the Love of Nature Poetry was the most important literary form Artists focused on landscapes and nature Percy Bysshe Shelley ( ) Prometheus Unbound (revolt of human against laws & customs) Lord Byron ( ) Dramatized himself as a romantic hero (died in Greek revolt) Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage William Wordsworth ( ) The mysterious force of nature Mirror where people could learn about themselves Edgar Allan Poe American romantic author of The Fall of the House of Usher Critique of Science Worship of nature led criticism of industrialized world Shelly’s Frankenstein symbolized the dangers of science trying to conquer nature Religion in the age of Romanticism Catholic revival especially in Germany
Possible Test Question Which of the following were major themes/subjects of Romantic artists? Portraits Madonnas and religious scenes Landscapes and depictions of nature Scenes from aristocratic family life Urban scenes.
Romanticism in Art and Music Hector Berlioz ( ) Symphonie Fantastique – first complete program symphony Casper David Friedrich ( ) Art depicted God and nature Eugène Delacroix ( ) Most famous French Romantic artist Passion for color Ludwig van Beethoven ( ) Beethoven, whose compositions bridged the gap between Classicism and Romanticism Romantic architecture favored Gothic style
Caspar David Friedrich, Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon