Presentation on theme: "Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism,"— Presentation transcript:
1Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815 - 1850 Chapter 21Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism,
2The Conservative Order (1815 – 1830) The Peace SettlementQuadruple Alliance: Great Britain, Russia, Austria, PrussiaDefeated NapoleonCongress of Vienna (1814 – 1815)Created policies to maintain European balance of powerLead by Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austrian foreign minister)Believed European monarchs shared common interest of stabilityThe principal of legitimacyConsidered it necessary to restore legitimate monarchs to preserve traditional institutionsRestore Bourbon monarchy to the throne in Louis XVIIIA new balance of powerStrengthen countries to prevent one country from dominatingNapoleon’s escape from Elba prompted the Congress of Vienna to push France’s borders back to those of 1790 as punishment for enthusiastically accepting him back
3Possible Test Question At the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian representative Prince Metternich pursued the policy of legitimacy, meaningHe wished to legitimate the French defeat.He sought legitimate control over central Europe to benefit Austria.He endeavored to restore legitimate monarchs on their thrones and to preserve traditional institutions and values.He sought legitimate proof of England’s economic and industrial support of Austria.He demanded that the state churches, Catholic or Protestant, become the primary rulers throughout all of Europe.
4Possible Test Question The Congress of ViennaGave Prussia complete control over Polish lands.Created policies that would maintain the European balance of power.Failed to achieve long-lasting peace among European nations.Treated France leniently following Napoleon’s One Hundred Days.Sanctioned the political power of the bourgeoisie.
5Conservative Ideology Conservatism became the dominant political thought after the fall of NapoleonFrom Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution of FranceEmphasized the dangers of radical political changeConservative political thoughtObedience to political authorityOrganized religion was crucial to social orderHated revolutionary upheavalsAdvocated slow, gradual changesUnwilling to accept liberal demands or representative governmentWanted to preserve achievements of previous generations while sacrificing individual rights for the well being of the community
6Possible Test Question Conservatism, the dominant political philosophy following the fall of NapoleonWas rejected by the Congress of Vienna as inappropriate in the new liberal age.Expressed that individual rights remained the best guide for human order.Was exemplified by Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France, emphasizing the dangers of radical and “rational” political change.Was too radical for Joseph de Maistre, the French spokesman for a cautious, evolutionary conservatism.Advocated the creation of oligarchic republics.
7New Map of EuropeCongress of Vienna sought to weaken France and maintain a balance powerCreated a new enlarged NetherlandsEnlarged SardinaPrussia was given territory on the RhineGermanic Confederation (Germanic States)Kingdom of PolandAustria got territory in northern ItalyCongress of Vienna managed to prevent an all out European conflict for almost a century
9Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe Fear of Revolution & war led to development of the Concert of EuropeMet several times: congressesQuintuple AllianceWithdraw armies from France, add France to the Concert of Europe
10Principle of intervention Outbreak of revolution in Spain and ItalyGreat powers reserved the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitimate monarchs to their throneBritain objected to the principle of intervention leading to a breakdown in the Concert of EuropeAustrian troops crushed Italian rebellionFrench troops crushed Spanish rebellionBritain’s refusal kept Continental Europe from interfering in revolutions in Latin America
11Possible Test Question The most important factor in preventing the European overthrow of the newly independent nations of Latin America wasEuropean economic collapse.The Monroe Doctrine guiding American foreign policy.The sheer size of South America.Growing support for pacifism in Europe.British naval power.
12The Revolt of Latin America Bourbon monarchy of Spain toppledLatin American countries begin declaring independenceSimón Bolivar ( )Freed Columbia (1819) & Venezuela (1821)José de San Martín ( )Freed Chile (1817)San Martin & Bolivar joined to crush the last Spanish authority in Lima, Peru (1821)After 1825, almost all of Latin America was free of colonial dominationContinental Europe looked to intervene, U.S. passed the Monroe Doctrine pledging to support Latin American countriesBritish Navy was more of a deterrent than U.S. wordsBritain began to dominate Latin American economyBritish merchants & investors moved in
13Map 21.2: Latin America in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
14The Greek Revolt,Intervention could support revolution as wellGreek revolt in, 1820European sympathy for their cause grewBritain, France, Russia at warFrench & British navy destroyed Ottoman ArmadaRussia declared war on Ottoman EmpireTreaty of Adrianople, 1829Ended the Russian-Turkish WarGreece was declared an independent kingdom
15Possible Test Question The Greek revolt was successful largely due toA well-trained guerrilla army.The Turks’ lack of fortitude.European intervention.Superior Greek military tactics.Adopting a policy of peaceful coexistence.
16Conservative Domination: The European States Great Britain: Rule of the ToriesLandowning classes dominate ParliamentTory and Whig factions; Tories dominateCorn Law of 1815 – placed a high tariff on foreign grain – put a financial strain on working classesPeterloo Massacre (1819) – military fired on English protesting high bread prices
17Restoration in FranceLouis XVIII (r – 1824)Kept some of the Revolutionary changesAccepted some of the Napoleonic CodeProperty RightsBicameral Legislature EstablishedUltraroyalists – hoped to return to a monarchical system & criticized the king’s willingness to compromise
18Intervention in the Italian States and Spain Conservative reaction against the forces of nationalism and liberalismAustrian forces intervene in ItalyFrench forces intervene in SpainRepression in Central EuropeMetternich and the forces of reactionLiberal and national movements in GermanyInitially weak & remained controlled by landowning classBurschenshaften – students societies, dedicated to a free and united Germany (symbol of growing liberalism and nationalism)Karlsbad Decrees (1819)Metternich had this decree drawn up by the Germanic Confederation in response to the BurschenschaftenThe Karlsbad Decrees (1819)Disbanded the BurschenschaftenCensored the pressSupervised universitiesRestrictions on university activities
19Possible Test Question The Karlsbad Decrees of 1819 did all of the following exceptDisband the Burschenshaften.Impose censorship on the German press.Placed most German universities under close government supervision.Dissolved several smaller German states.Placed restrictions upon university activities.
20Start of 19th century, Russia was rural, agricultural, and autocratic Alexander I ( )Raised on ideas of the Enlightenment & seemed sympathetic to reformLeader of Russia during Napoleonic WarsReformed the Russian education systemAfter the defeat of Napoleon, his rule turned stricter leading to oppositionUsed censorship to govern the peopleNicholas I ( )Military leaders of the Northern Union rebelled against Nicholas I taking the throne (Decembrist Revolt)Revolt was crushed by loyal troopsRussia became a police state (secret police)Nicholas feared revolutions in Russia & in Europe
21Possible Test Question Tsar Alexander I of Russia did all of the following exceptBecome more reactionary after the defeat of Napoleon.Grant a constitution, freeing the serfs.Reform the Russian education system.Revert to a program of arbitrary censorship as a tool of governing.Was the leader of Russia during the Napoleonic Wars.
22Ideologies of Change Liberalism Economic liberalism (classical economics)Laissez-faire – free from constraintsSupply & Demand would dictate the marketThomas Malthus Essay on the Principles of PopulationPresented a case against government interventionMisery & poverty were simply the inevitable result of the law of nature; no government or individual should interfere with its operationDavid Ricardo Principles of Political EconomyIron Law of WagesWages are cyclical, raising them arbitrarily is futileIncrease in population means more workers, lower wages, resulting in starvation & misery, reducing the population, which increases wages, causing a higher birth rate and the cycle continues
23Possible Test Question The argument that population must be held in check for any progress to take place was popularized byAdam Smith.David Ricardo.Joeseph de Maistre.Edmund Burke.Thomas Malthus.
24Political liberalism Ideology of political liberalism Believed in individual freedomProtection of civil libertiesFreedom before the law, assembly, speech, pressModeled after the Declaration of Independence & the Rights of Man & CitizenThe rights of a representative assembly (legislature) to make lawsPolitical liberalism was embraced by the industrial middle classThey wanted voting rights so they could share power with the landowning class but they didn’t advocate extending those rights to the lower class
25John Stuart Mill, On Liberty Supported the absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjectsSupported Women’s rightsOn the Subjection of WomenThe legal subordination of one sex to the other was wrongImportant work for later suffrage movements
26Possible Test Question The foremost group embracing liberalism was made up byFactory workers.The industrial middle class.Radical aristocrats.Army officers.The landed gentry.
27NationalismPart of a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customsThe community is called a “nation”Formation of political loyaltyNationalist ideologyArose from the French Revolution and spread across EuropeNational unity in Germany or Italy threatened to upset the balance of power established with the Congress of ViennaAn independent Hungarian state would breakup the Austrian EmpireConservatives tried to repress nationalism (Concert of Europe)Allied with liberalismLiberals believed their goals could only be realized by people who ruled themselvesNationalists believed that stronger states comprised of their own people would eventually link communities and ultimately humanity
28Map 21.3: The Distribution of Language in Nineteenth-Century Europe
29Early Socialism Utopian Socialists Against private property & competitive spirit of capitalismCharles Fourier (1772 – 1838)Proposed the creation of small model cooperative communities called “phalansteries”People would live & work together for mutual benefitRobert Owen ( )British cotton manufacturer who believed human goodness would reveal itself if people worked togetherDeveloped a healthy community in Scotland but failed in U.S.
30Early Socialism Louis Blanc (1813 – 1882) Female Supporters Thought social problems could be solved by government assistanceDenounced competition as an economic evilProposed establishing workshops that would manufacture goods for public saleThe state would finance the workshops but the workers would own and operate themThese national workshops would become little more than unemployment compensation units through public works projectsFemale SupportersUtopian socialism attracted many women who hoped to help their gender by reordering societyFlora Tristan (1803 – 1844)Traveled Europe demanding equality for the sexesShe was largely ignoredSocialism remained a fringe movement in the early 19th century but it laid the groundwork for later attacks on capitalism
31Possible Test Question The French socialist, Flora TristanDemanded absolute equality of the sexes.Established a cooperative socialist community at New Harmony, Indiana.Felt that the greatest evil in society was the profit motive in business and economics.Started the international “Women’s Social and Political Union.”Condemned Karl Marx as being too revolutionary.
32Revolution and Reform, 1830-1850 Another French RevolutionCharles X ( )Liberals were winning elections which angered the kingIssued the July OrdinancesRigid censorshipDissolved the legislative assemblyReduced the electorate in preparation for new electionsImmediate revolt by liberals
33Louis-Philippe ( )Group of moderate liberals appealed to Louis-Philippe, the Duke of Orleans to become the constitutional king of FranceCharles X fled to Great Britain & a new monarchy was bornThe bourgeois monarch – support for his rule came from the upper middle classConstitutional changes favor the upper bourgeoisieLower bourgeoisie & working class are disappointed that they are excluded from political power
34Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy (Nationalism) Primary driving force for these three 1830 revolution was nationalism.Austrian Netherlands (Catholic Belgium) given to (Protestant) Dutch Republic by the Congress of ViennaNationalistic revolt by the Belgians (Protestants) established a constitutional monarchyRevolt attempts in Poland and ItalyAustrians crushed Italian revolutionRussians crushed Polish revolution
36Possible Test Question The most successful nationalistic European revolution in 1830 was inPoland.Germany.Italy.The United Provinces.Belgium.
37Reform in Great Britain The Reform Act of 1832New political power for industrial urban communities (Whigs take power over Tories)July Revolution in France set the stage for changeBenefited the upper middle class (wealthy industrial middle class)Reform Act of 1832 – Industrial communities gained a voice in votingNumber of voters increased from 478,000 – 814,000Artisans, industrial workers & lower middle classes still had no voteNew Reform LegislationPoor Law of 1834 – based on the theory that giving aid to the poor & unemployed would encourage lazinessThe poor were crowded into workhouses where the living & working conditions were intentionally miserable so people would be encouraged to find employmentRepeal of the Corn Laws (1846)Economic liberals advocated free trade & lower bread prices for workers
38Possible Test Question The Reform Bill of 1832 in Britain primarily benefited theLanded aristocracy.Peasants.Working class.Clergy.Upper middle-class.
39The Revolutions of 1848 Yet Another French Revolution 1846 – agricultural & industrial depression1847 – 33% unemployment rate in ParisGovernment was corrupt & failed to initiate reformNo suffrage for the middle classLouis-Philippe abdicates, February 24, 1848 (fled to Britain)Provisional government establishedElections to be by universal manhood suffrageNational workshops – jobs for unemployedGrowing split between moderate and liberal republicansModerate Government – most of FranceRadical liberals – Parisian working class
40Second Republic established Provisional government established workshops under the influence of Louis BlancUnemployed workers got jobs raking leafs, ditch digging & other manual labor jobsUnemployed workers in the national workshops rose from 10,000 to 120,000, emptying the treasury & prompting moderates to halt the programsBecame little more than unemployment compensation units through public works projectsWorkers refused to except the decision leading to four days of fighting in this working class revolt (government prevailed)Second Republic establishedNew Constitution ratifiedCharles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected in December, 1848 (nephew of Napoleon)
42Revolution in Central Europe French revolts led to promises of reformFrederick William IV ( )Germanic state rulers made concessions to the growing revolutionary sentimentsFreedom of press, abolishing censorship, new constitutions, & working towards a united GermanyFrankfurt AssemblyAll German parliament elected by universal male suffragePurpose was to prepare a constitution for a united GermanyFrederick William IV refused the offer of “emperor of the Germans”Frankfurt Assembly disbanded without accomplishing their goal of a united Germany
43Possible Test Question In 1848, the Frankfurt AssemblyUnanimously adopted a Grossdeutsch solution for the Germanies.Succeeded in making Prussia’s Frederick William IV president of a united Germany.Failed in its attempt to create a united Germany.Gained the support of Austria.Declared its solidarity with revolutionary France.
44Austrian Empire Louis Kossuth, Hungary Advocated the formation of a legislatureMetternich flees the country after demonstrations begin & he is dismissed from officeIn Vienna, revolutionary forces took control calling for a constituent assemblyHungary’s wishes grantedOwn LegislatureNational armyControl over its foreign policy & budget
45Austria Cont’dEmperor Ferdinand I & Austrian officials made concessions to revolutionaries but waited for an opportunity to reassert conservative controlTried to capitalize on division between radical & moderate revolutionariesMilitary forces suppressed Czech rebelsFerdinand I abdicated in favor of his nephewFrancis Joseph I ( )Nicholas I of Russia sent in troops to defeat Kossuth’s forces and suppress the revolutionAustrian emperor & propertied classes remained in power
46Revolts in the Italian States Giuseppe Mazzini ( )Risorgimento - resurgenceFounded organization called Young Italy, 1831Goal: a united ItalyCristina Belgioioso ( )Wealthy aristocrat who worked for a united ItalyItalian citizens rose up in 1848Charles Albert (r – 1849)King of Italian state of Piedmont took up to the call for a war of liberation from AustriaThe revolution (resurgence) was defeated by combined forces from the Pope, France and Austria.
47Possible Test Question Giuseppe Mazzini’s nationalist organization, Young Italy,Liberated Italy’s northern provinces from Austrian control.Failed to achieve his goal of “resurgence” by 1849.Helped inspire successful liberal constitutions throughout Italy.Used the liberals in governments to extend suffrage to Italy’s working classes.Allied itself with the papacy to drive France out of Italy.
48The Failures of 1848 Division within the revolutionaries Radicals and liberalsLiberties from propertied classes failed to extend male suffrage to the working classesLiberals were concerned about their property & security & the fear of a social revolution by the working classDivisions among nationalitiesHungarians demanded autonomy from Austrians but refused to offer the same autonomy to their minorities
49The Maturing of the United States The American Constitution contained forces of liberalism and nationalismAlexander Hamilton ( ), FederalistFavored a financial program that would establish a strong central governmentThomas Jefferson ( ), RepublicanFeared centralization & consequences for popular libertiesEffects of War of 1812Brought an end to the Federalists who had opposed the warJohn Marshall ( )Strengthened the Supreme Court (checks Congress)Andrew Jackson ( ) and democracy Male suffrage – dropped property qualification
50The Emergence of an Ordered Society Development of a regular system of policePurpose of policePreserve property & lives, maintain domestic order, investigate crime, & arrest offenders & to create a disciplined law-abiding societyFrench Police – Known as SerfientsFirst appearance of new kind of police in ParisBritish Bobbies“Bobbies” introduced in 1829 – 1830Goal was to prevent crimeCrime and Social ReformNew poor lawsMoral reformersOrganized religionPrison ReformThe United States takes the lead (Auburn Prison in New York, Walnut Street Prison in Philadelphia)Prison reform in France and Britain
51Possible Test Question Professional civilian police forces known as serfients first appeared in 1829 inGermany.Russia.Italy.Bavaria.France.
52The Characteristics of Romanticism Emotion, sentiment, and inner feelingsReaction to Enlightenment’s preoccupation with reasonRomantic movement had its roots in GermanyTragic figureJohann Wolfgang von Goethe ( ),The Sorrows of the Young WertherLiterary model for early RomanticsIndividualism – interest in unique traits of each personRebellion against middle-class conventions – changes in hair, clothesInterest in the pastGrimm Brothers (published local fairy tales)Hans Christian Andersen (fairy tales from Denmark)Walter ScottBest selling novels (Ivanhoe)Gothic literatureEdgar Allan Poe ( )Mary Shelley ( )
53Possible Test Question The romantic movement can be viewed as a(n)Reaction against the Enlightenment’s preoccupation with reason.Continuation of Enlightenment ideals and practices.Attempt to create a socialist society.Movement of lower-class, less literate people.Fascination with war and conflict.
54Romantic Poets and the Love of Nature Poetry was the most important literary formArtists focused on landscapes and naturePercy Bysshe Shelley ( )Prometheus Unbound (revolt of human against laws & customs)Lord Byron ( )Dramatized himself as a romantic hero (died in Greek revolt)Childe Harold’s PilgrimageWilliam Wordsworth ( )The mysterious force of natureMirror where people could learn about themselvesEdgar Allan PoeAmerican romantic author of The Fall of the House of UsherCritique of ScienceWorship of nature led criticism of industrialized worldShelly’s Frankenstein symbolized the dangers of science trying to conquer natureReligion in the age of RomanticismCatholic revival especially in Germany
55Possible Test Question Which of the following were major themes/subjects of Romantic artists?PortraitsMadonnas and religious scenesLandscapes and depictions of natureScenes from aristocratic family lifeUrban scenes.
56Romanticism in Art and Music Hector Berlioz ( )Symphonie Fantastique – first complete program symphonyCasper David Friedrich ( )Art depicted God and natureEugène Delacroix ( )Most famous French Romantic artistPassion for colorLudwig van Beethoven ( )Beethoven, whose compositions bridged the gap between Classicism and RomanticismRomantic architecture favored Gothic style
57Caspar David Friedrich, Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon