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REACTION AND REVOLUTION Section 19-2. The Congress of Vienna After the defeat of Napoleon, European rulers moved to restore the old order. This was set.

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Presentation on theme: "REACTION AND REVOLUTION Section 19-2. The Congress of Vienna After the defeat of Napoleon, European rulers moved to restore the old order. This was set."— Presentation transcript:

1 REACTION AND REVOLUTION Section 19-2

2 The Congress of Vienna After the defeat of Napoleon, European rulers moved to restore the old order. This was set up that way at the Congress of Vienna. Prince Clemens von Metternich was the most influential leader at the meeting. The great powers rearranged territories in Europe believing that this would form a new balance of power.After the defeat of Napoleon, European rulers moved to restore the old order. This was set up that way at the Congress of Vienna. Prince Clemens von Metternich was the most influential leader at the meeting. The great powers rearranged territories in Europe believing that this would form a new balance of power.

3 Key Players at Vienna The Host Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)

4 1. Conservation and the Balance of Power Congress of Vienna was a victory for rulers who wanted to contain the forces of change that the French Revolution had unleashed. These rulers believed in the political philosophy known as CONSERVATISM. It is based on tradition and a belief in the value of social stability. It believed that organized religion was crucial to keep order. To maintain balance of power, created Concert of Europe to discuss problem spots in Europe.Congress of Vienna was a victory for rulers who wanted to contain the forces of change that the French Revolution had unleashed. These rulers believed in the political philosophy known as CONSERVATISM. It is based on tradition and a belief in the value of social stability. It believed that organized religion was crucial to keep order. To maintain balance of power, created Concert of Europe to discuss problem spots in Europe.

5 2. Principle of Intervention The great powers had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their throne.The great powers had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their throne.

6 B. Forces of Change Powerful forces for change – known as liberalism and nationalism – were at work in Europe.Powerful forces for change – known as liberalism and nationalism – were at work in Europe.

7 1. Liberalism Is a political philosophy that grew out of the Enlightenment. Held that people should be as free as possible from government restraints. Liberals believed that civil liberties should be protected. Liked the Bill of Rights documents. Most wanted religious toleration and demanded the right of peaceful opposition to the government. Favored rule by constitution. Believed that written constitution would guarantee the rights they sought to preserve. Did not believe in a democracy and thought that the right to vote and hold office should be open only to men of property. Liberals feared mob rule and had little desire to let the lower classes share that power.Is a political philosophy that grew out of the Enlightenment. Held that people should be as free as possible from government restraints. Liberals believed that civil liberties should be protected. Liked the Bill of Rights documents. Most wanted religious toleration and demanded the right of peaceful opposition to the government. Favored rule by constitution. Believed that written constitution would guarantee the rights they sought to preserve. Did not believe in a democracy and thought that the right to vote and hold office should be open only to men of property. Liberals feared mob rule and had little desire to let the lower classes share that power.

8 2. Nationalism More powerful than liberalism. Arose when people began to identify as a part of a community defined by a distinctive language, common institution and customs, called a nation. Did not become popular until the French Revolution. Came to believe that each nationality should have its own government. Was seen as a threat to the existing political order. Found a strong ally in liberalism, most liberals believed that freedom could only be possible in people who ruled themselves.More powerful than liberalism. Arose when people began to identify as a part of a community defined by a distinctive language, common institution and customs, called a nation. Did not become popular until the French Revolution. Came to believe that each nationality should have its own government. Was seen as a threat to the existing political order. Found a strong ally in liberalism, most liberals believed that freedom could only be possible in people who ruled themselves.

9 3. Revolutionary Outbursts 1830 the forces began to change through the conservative domination of Europe. In France, liberals overthrew the Bourbon monarch Charles X and established a constitutional monarchy. There was political support for the new monarch. Louis Philipp came from the upper middle class.1830 the forces began to change through the conservative domination of Europe. In France, liberals overthrew the Bourbon monarch Charles X and established a constitutional monarchy. There was political support for the new monarch. Louis Philipp came from the upper middle class also led to 3 other revolts. Nationalism was the force in all of them. Belgium rebelled and created an independent state. Poland and Italy want to break free from outsiders. Not much success here.1830 also led to 3 other revolts. Nationalism was the force in all of them. Belgium rebelled and created an independent state. Poland and Italy want to break free from outsiders. Not much success here.

10 Charles X Louis Philipp Louis Napoleon

11 C. The Revolutions of Another French Revolution1. Another French Revolution France once again had a revolution and it will spread to other countries. Economic problems hit France which hurt the lower classes, meanwhile middle class was begging to get the right to vote. Louis Philippe refused to make changes. He was overthrown and a moderate and radical republican group set up a provisional government. It called for the election of representatives and to have universal male suffrage. Also set up national workshops to provide work for the unemployed. A new constitution set up the Second Republic. Has a single legislature and a president. Louis Napoleon won a victory.France once again had a revolution and it will spread to other countries. Economic problems hit France which hurt the lower classes, meanwhile middle class was begging to get the right to vote. Louis Philippe refused to make changes. He was overthrown and a moderate and radical republican group set up a provisional government. It called for the election of representatives and to have universal male suffrage. Also set up national workshops to provide work for the unemployed. A new constitution set up the Second Republic. Has a single legislature and a president. Louis Napoleon won a victory.

12 The Revolutions of Trouble in the German States2. Trouble in the German States Congress of Vienna has created German Confederation of 38 states. In 1848 an all German parliament call that Frankfurt Assembly. Was held to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream – a new constitution for a united Germany. Proposed a parliamentary government and a hereditary emperor. Ultimately it failed to gain the support needed, so united Germany did not happen.Congress of Vienna has created German Confederation of 38 states. In 1848 an all German parliament call that Frankfurt Assembly. Was held to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream – a new constitution for a united Germany. Proposed a parliamentary government and a hereditary emperor. Ultimately it failed to gain the support needed, so united Germany did not happen.

13 The Revolutions of Revolutions in Central Europe3. Revolutions in Central Europe Austrian empire was a multinational state and this was causing problems demonstrations erupted and the Hapsburg court dismissed Metternich. Leaders made concessions but in the end, wanted to reestablish their control over the empire.Austrian empire was a multinational state and this was causing problems demonstrations erupted and the Hapsburg court dismissed Metternich. Leaders made concessions but in the end, wanted to reestablish their control over the empire.

14 The Revolutions of Revolts in the Italian States4. Revolts in the Italian States Vienna set up 9 states in Italy. A revolt broke out against the Austrians in Lombardy and Venetia. The old order prevailed.Vienna set up 9 states in Italy. A revolt broke out against the Austrians in Lombardy and Venetia. The old order prevailed.

15 19-2 Review Voting rights for all adult menVoting rights for all adult men universal male suffrageuniversal male suffrage Belief in tradition and social stabilityBelief in tradition and social stability conservatismconservatism Right of powerful countries to maintain order throughout EuropeRight of powerful countries to maintain order throughout Europe Principle of interventionPrinciple of intervention Collection of different peoples under the same government, as in the Austrian EmpireCollection of different peoples under the same government, as in the Austrian Empire multinational statemultinational state

16 19-2 Review In 1848, France, Italy and the German states had what? Revolutions He claimed, after Napoleons defeat, that lawful monarchs should be restored. Metterich After Napoleon, France was governed until 1830 by what? A king The peace settlement that followed the defeat of Napoleon was developed at the?

17 19-2 Review Congress of ViennaCongress of Vienna Was the first president of the Second Republic in France?Was the first president of the Second Republic in France? Louis NapoleonLouis Napoleon Belief that people should be free from government restraintBelief that people should be free from government restraint liberalismliberalism


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