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Presentation on theme: "REACTION AND REVOLUTION"— Presentation transcript:

Section 19-2 REACTION AND REVOLUTION After the French revolution Europe want to create balance and order and needed to divided up napoleons Empire.

2 The Congress of Vienna After the defeat of Napoleon, European rulers moved to restore the old order. This was set up that way at the Congress of Vienna. Prince Clemens von Metternich was the most influential leader at the meeting. The great powers rearranged territories in Europe believing that this would form a new balance of power. After napoleon had been defeated the coalition wanted to restore the old order and government. to do this there was a meeting at the Congress of Vienna in 1814.

3 Key Players at Vienna Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.)
Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) The key players at the Congress of Vienna The Host Metternich he wanted the lawful monarchs from the royal families who had ruled before napoleon took Europe to have their positions of power back “ principle of legitimacy”. It was believed that this would ensure peace and stability throughout Europe. The French king Louis the XVIII had already been restored to power. Besides re-establishing those of power the other goal was to keep anyone country of Europe from gaining to much power. this meant balancing each country militarily and politically. For example Russia had more territories than Austria and Prussia so some of the Russian territory was given to the other two to balance out the playing field. The “Host” Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)

4 1. Conservation and the Balance of Power
Congress of Vienna was a victory for rulers who wanted to contain the forces of change that the French Revolution had unleashed. These rulers believed in the political philosophy known as CONSERVATISM. It is based on tradition and a belief in the value of social stability. It believed that organized religion was crucial to keep order. To maintain balance of power, created Concert of Europe to discuss problem spots in Europe. They favored obiendience to political authority and did not have patience for those who were in favor of representative governmetns and individual rights. In order to keep the peace Great Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia and later france would meet to discuss issues that might threaten the balance of Europe.

5 2. Principle of Intervention
The great powers had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their throne. To help keep the balance of power and keep order the Principle of Intervention was adopted. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and France had the right to send armies into countries where revolutions against the government were starting to take palace. Great Britain did not support this because they did not believe it was the place of the great powers to become involved in the internal affairs of other countries. This was ignored by the other powers who restored the monarchies in both Spain and Italy which hade been controlled by Napoleon.

6 B. Forces of Change Powerful forces for change – known as liberalism and nationalism – were at work in Europe. These two new ideas would threaten the conservative orders and the accomplishments of the Congress of Vienna.

7 1. Liberalism Is a political philosophy that grew out of the Enlightenment. Held that people should be as free as possible from government restraints. Liberals believed that civil liberties should be protected. Liked the Bill of Rights documents. Most wanted religious toleration and demanded the right of peaceful opposition to the government. Favored rule by constitution. Believed that written constitution would guarantee the rights they sought to preserve. Did not believe in a democracy and thought that the right to vote and hold office should be open only to men of property. Liberals feared mob rule and had little desire to let the lower classes share that power. They wanted equality before the law, freedom to assembly , freedom of press= they approved of the American bill of rights and believed they should have one in their governments as well. They wanted religious toleration as well as separation of church and state They believed that a legislature of representatives elected by the people should make the laws They wanted a government outlined by a constitution that regulated the monarchy They did not believe that the poor should have the right to vote but instead only landowning white males.

8 2. Nationalism More powerful than liberalism. Arose when people began to identify as a part of a community defined by a distinctive language, common institution and customs, called a nation. Did not become popular until the French Revolution. Came to believe that each nationality should have its own government. Was seen as a threat to the existing political order. Found a strong ally in liberalism, most liberals believed that freedom could only be possible in people who ruled themselves. What made nationalism so unique during this time was that before this time people had given their loyalty to king or queen but now people were giving to their nation because it was who they were as a people and it gave them their identity. This concept was made popular during the French revolution because it was exactly what drove the French people to break from their government. People who followed this believed that all nation-states should have their own government and not be controlled by a greater which the congress of Vienna had done with Germany which was separated into principalities and Austria had taken control of some. Instead the people of these states wanted a unified Germany. With their own government. A united Germany would unset the balance that had been established.

9 3. Revolutionary Outbursts
1830 the forces began to change through the conservative domination of Europe. In France, liberals overthrew the Bourbon monarch Charles X and established a constitutional monarchy. There was political support for the new monarch. Louis Philipp came from the upper middle class.   1830 also led to 3 other revolts. Nationalism was the force in all of them. Belgium rebelled and created an independent state. Poland and Italy want to break free from outsiders. Not much success here. 1830 liberalism and nationalism begin to break through and make their presence known. Russia crushed the polish attempt to establish an independent polish nation.

10 Charles X Louis Philipp Louis Napoleon

11 C. The Revolutions of 1848 1. Another French Revolution
France once again had a revolution and it will spread to other countries. Economic problems hit France which hurt the lower classes, meanwhile middle class was begging to get the right to vote. Louis Philippe refused to make changes. He was overthrown and a moderate and radical republican group set up a provisional government. It called for the election of representatives and to have universal male suffrage. Also set up national workshops to provide work for the unemployed. A new constitution set up the Second Republic. Has a single legislature and a president. Louis Napoleon won a victory. Republican =republic=leaders voted in. Enacted universal makes suffrage to select those to be part of the constitutional assembly. The workshops failed and broke the treasury because the flooded at an overwhelming number with poop. 66, ,000. there was a revolt that was crush after four days many were sent to prisons in Algeria and northern Africa. Constitution chosen-president serve four years. Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, born in Paris in 1808, was both the nephew of Napoleon I and the grandson of the Empress Josephine. His father, who was king of Holland at the time (and who had doubts about whether the boy was really his), was Napoleon I's brother Louis. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, Josephine's daughter by her first husband.

12 The Revolutions of 1848 2. Trouble in the German States
Congress of Vienna has created German Confederation of 38 states. In 1848 an all German parliament call that Frankfurt Assembly. Was held to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream – a new constitution for a united Germany. Proposed a parliamentary government and a hereditary emperor. Ultimately it failed to gain the support needed, so united Germany did not happen. Also called for many enlightenment rights to be recognized. German rulers would not recognize the assembly and therefore could not force the constitution upon them.

13 The Revolutions of 1848 3. Revolutions in Central Europe
Austrian empire was a multinational state and this was causing problems demonstrations erupted and the Hapsburg court dismissed Metternich. Leaders made concessions but in the end, wanted to reestablish their control over the empire.

14 The Revolutions of 1848 4. Revolts in the Italian States
Vienna set up 9 states in Italy. A revolt broke out against the Austrians in Lombardy and Venetia. The old order prevailed. Goal was a unified Italy.- failed

15 19-2 Review Voting rights for all adult men universal male suffrage Belief in tradition and social stability conservatism Right of powerful countries to maintain order throughout Europe Principle of intervention Collection of different peoples under the same government, as in the Austrian Empire multinational state

16 19-2 Review In 1848, France, Italy and the German states had what? Revolutions He claimed, after Napoleon’s defeat, that lawful monarchs should be restored. Metterich After Napoleon, France was governed until 1830 by what? A king The peace settlement that followed the defeat of Napoleon was developed at the?

17 19-2 Review Congress of Vienna Was the first president of the Second Republic in France? Louis Napoleon Belief that people should be free from government restraint liberalism


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