Presentation on theme: "Challenges to the “Concert” System: The 1820s-1830 Revolutions."— Presentation transcript:
Challenges to the “Concert” System: The 1820s-1830 Revolutions
An Evaluation of the Congress of Vienna 4 The Congress of Vienna was criticized for ignoring the liberal & nationalist aspirations of so many peoples. 4 The leading statesmen at Vienna underestimated the new nationalism and liberalism generated by the French Revolution. 4 Not until the unification of Germany in 1870-71 was the balance of power upset. 4 Not until World War I did Europe have another general war.
Revolutionary Movements in the Early 19 c Revolutionary Movements in the Early 19 c
Revolutions in Latin America (1804-23) 4 Causes: Napoleonic wars weakened Spanish Authority in colonies 4 Ideology(ies): Liberalism 4 Goal(s) Independence from Spain 4 Results: Almost all colonies gain independence by 1825 Britain & USA impose economic imperialism Simón Bolívar, “TheLiberator” José de San Martín
1820s Revolts in Spain & Italian States: 4 Causes: The restoration of Bourbon Kings by the Congress of Vienna Ferdinand VII in Spain Ferdinand I in Naples & Sicily 4 Ideology(ies) Liberalism (both) & Nationalism (Italian States) 4 Goal(s): Depose Bourbon monarchs; est. their own gov’ts 4 Results: Both revolts were crushed by troops sent by Metternich’s Concert of Europe France in Spain Austria, Prussia & Russia in Italian States
Greek Independence (1821-30) Greece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827 4 Causes: Greek nationalists sought independence after 400 years of Ottoman rule 4 Ideology(ies): Nationalism (& Romanticism) 4 Goal(s): Independence from Ottomans 4 Results: England, France & Russia sent navies to help Greece Treaty of Adrianople (1829) Russia gets Romania Greeks gain independence (1830)
The Decembrist Revolt, 1825 4 Causes: Western liberal ideas spread to Russian upper-class Succession crisis Constantine abdicates throne to brother Nicholas Moscow regiment refused to pledge oath to Nicholas (Dec. 26, 1825) 4 Ideology(ies): Liberalism 4 Goal(s): Est. constitutional monarchy & abolition of serfdom 4 Results: Nicholas crushed the revolt; leaders executed In their martyrdom, the Decembrists came to symbolize the dreams/ideals of all Russian liberals.
The Decembrist Uprising - 1825 Nicholas I – the “policeman” of Europe 4 Orthodoxy! 4 Autocracy! 4 Nationalism!
France: The “Restoration” Era (1815-1830) 4 France emerged from the chaos of its revolutionary period as the most liberal large state in Europe. 4 Louis XVIII governed France as a Constitutional monarch. He agreed to observe the 1814 “Charter” or Constitution of the Restoration period. Limited royal power. Granted legislative power. Protected civil rights. Upheld the Napoleonic Code. Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)
Causes of 1830 Revolution in France 4 New king Charles X was an “Ultra-Royalist” 4 Tried to win support through nationalism conquered Algeria 4 July Ordinances Repudiated the Constitutional Charter of 1814. Strict censorship of press imposed. Changed the voting laws so that the government in the future could be assured of a conservative victory. King Charles X (r. 1824-1830)
To the Barracades Revolution, Again!! Workers, students and some of the middle class call for a Republic!
Result Louis Philippe,The “Citizen King” 4 Charles’s cousin 4 His Program: Property qualifications reduced enough to double eligible voters. Press censorship abolished. The King ruled by the will of the people, not by the will of God. The Fr Revolution’s tricolor replaced the Bourbon flag. (r. 1830-1848)
The “Bourgeois Monarchy” Corruption A caricature of Louis Philippe 4 The government was now under the control of the wealthy middle class 4 His gov’t ignored the needs and demands of the workers in the cities (crushed workers’ strikes in 1832 & 1834).
Belgian Independence, 1830 4 Causes: The merger of Belgium & the Dutch Republic after the Congress of Vienna 4 Ideology(ies): Nationalism 4 Goal(s): Independence from the Netherlands 4 Results: Belgians overthrow Dutch rulers convinced European powers to recognize their independence; est. a constitutional monarchy
4 Causes: Poles became restless under tyrannical rule of new Tsar Nicholas I Rumors started that Nicholas would use Polish troops to put down revolutions in France & Netherlands 4 Ideology(ies): Nationalism 4 Goal(s): End Russian control of Poland 4 Results: Bloodiest of the 1830 revolts ( a year of brutal fighting) Russian Troops suppress revolt b/c Britain & France failed to send troops The irony by drawing the Russian army to Warsaw for almost a year, the Poles may well have kept Nicholas I from answering Holland’s call for help in suppressing the Belgian Revolt The irony
The Battle of Peterloo- 1819 Protests over the Corn Laws in Manchester Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!
Why was Great Britain Spared? 4 Liberal activists in Parliament (Whigs) win reforms (1820s) Civil rights for Catholics Laissez-faire legislation Limited imports on grain from abroad 4 Reform Bill (1832) Made House of Commons most important house of Parliament Expanded suffrage (12% of pop.) Gave new seats to heavily populated industrial cities Removed “rotten boroughs” 4 Repeal of the Corn Laws (1846) victory of free trade
The Results of the 1820s-1830 Revolutions? 1.The Concert of Europe provided for a recovery of Europe after the long years of Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. 2.The conservatives did NOT reverse ALL of the reforms put in place by the French Revolution. 3.Liberalism would challenge the conservative plan for European peace and law and order. 4.These revolutions were successful only in W. Europe: Their success was in their popular support. Middle class lead, aided by the urban lower classes. 5.The successful revolutions had benefited the middle class the workers, who had done so much of the rioting and fighting, were left with empty hands! 6.Therefore, these revolutions left much unfinished & a seething, unsatisfied working class.