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1815-1871 ‘isms After effects of the French Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "1815-1871 ‘isms After effects of the French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 ‘isms After effects of the French Revolution

2 Conservatism Edmund Burke Critique of the French Revolution Natural rights dangerous to social order Authority based tradition Slow change over time Joseph Maistre Church is foundation for society Authority comes from God Monarchs should crush attempts at reform

3 Nationalism Identity based on nation Loyalty to nation is more important than loyalty to king or local lord Language, history and literature to create a common past

4 Liberalism Declaration of the Rights of Man Individual natural rights Limit political power with constitutions Creation of representative parliamentary bodies Freedom of press, religion, equality under the law Adam Smith and Laissez-faire

5 Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill “greatest good for the greatest number” The state may need to intervene to achieve economic justice

6 Socialism Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Robert Owen “Utopian Socialists” Economic equality through common ownership of all property

7 Political Uncertainty France Louis XVIII became King of France after Napoleon Ruled as a constitutional monarch No popular sovereignty Limited franchise Only king could introduce laws

8 Political Uncertainty France Charles X became king in 1824 Conservatism Law of Sacrilege July Ordinances Dissolved assembly Took away suffrage from bourgeoisie censorship

9 Political Uncertainty France July Revolution 1830 Louis Phillipe made King Creation of the bourgeoisie monarchy

10 Political Uncertainty Spain Ferdinand VII restored after fall of Napoleon, agreed to follow constitution of 1812 Once restored, he dissolved the Cortes (legislature), persecuted liberals Rebellion in 1820 army and middle class King agreed to rule by constitution Concert of Europe France, supported by Russia, Prussia and Austria Restored as an absolute monarch 1822

11 Political Uncertainty Italy King Ferdinand of Naples agreed to rule as constitutional monarch Once restored, refused to give up absolute power Bourgeoisie and nationalist revolt Troppau Protocol European powers had right to intervene in revolutionary situations Austria intervened, put down revolt

12 Political Uncertainty Greece Revolt against Ottoman Rule in 1821 Britain, France and Russia intervened to help Greeks Independence in 1832 Serbia Gained independence from Ottomans in 1830

13 Political Uncertainty Russia Nicolas I r “Decembrist” revolt, supported Constitutional Monarchy Put down with violence Ruled with an iron fist

14 Political Uncertainty Great Britain Conservatism following French Rev. Peterloo Massacre- wanted universal male suffrage, annual parliaments Six Acts- banned demonstrations, imposed censorship

15 Political Uncertainty Great Britain Gradual Reform Combinations Acts repealed 1829 (unions) Great Reform Bill expanded electorate (1-5 male voters), representative districts Poor Law miserable workhouses for poor Factory Act of limited hours children work Corn Laws – ended tariffs on grain


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