Presentation on theme: "Europe After Napoleon Chapter 12, Section 2. The Congress of Vienna Congress of Vienna met in September 1814 to determine a final peace settlement with."— Presentation transcript:
The Congress of Vienna Congress of Vienna met in September 1814 to determine a final peace settlement with France – Included Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia – Led by Austrian foreign minister Klemens von Metternich 3 things pulled from meetings: – Sought principle of legitimacy, or restoring power to old ruling families – New territories were outlined to create balance – Limits put on military to preserve peace
The Conservative Order Collection of rulers that had “won” at the Congress of Vienna Hoped to spread conservatism, or tradition and social stability – At this time, they wanted obedience to authority, organized religion – Against French Revolution principles Held annual conferences to monitor progress, discuss steps Great powers adopted principle of intervention saying they could send armies into countries to end rebellions – “Great Powers” included Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and France
Liberalism and Nationalism While conservatism fought to preserve older ruling elite, it met resistance Liberalism – Said people should be free from government restraint – Wanted civil liberties protected by a written document (US Bill of Rights) – Favored government ruled by constitution BUT that those voting could only be men who owned land…no poor voters Nationalism – People with common beliefs, customs, and national symbols – Spread by French Revolution and Napoleon – Encouraged divided nations to unite (Germany, Italy)
Seeds of Revolution Sweeping change begins in Europe despite The Conservative Order Liberalism – France 1830 – Charles X is overthrown and Louis- Philippe is placed in control…constitutional monarchy (like in Britain) Nationalism – Belgium gains independence from Dutch – Poland and Italy try to gain independence, but lose to Russia and Austria
French Revolution of 1848 Causes – Economic issues affecting middle and lower classes – Demand for right to vote Government of Louis-Philippe overthrown in 1848, republic set up (government leaders are elected) – The Constituent Assembly drew up new constitution – Election by universal male suffrage – all MEN could vote – Set up workshops to provide work for unemployed Workshops caused a riot when they were shut down – Fighting in streets, government eventually ends rebellion through bloodshed Constitution ratified in November, first president elected is Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon I
Revolts in Central Europe Austria also suffered from revolts Empire was a multinational state – a collection of different peoples – Hard to control, have universal rules Metternich was dismissed following demonstrations in March of 1848 – Despite the dismissal, demonstrations continue – some groups wanted to separate from Austria With the help of Russian forces, Czech rebels defeated, revolts fail
Trouble in Italy and Germany Italy – 9 states are set up in Italy by the Congress of Vienna – Some ruled by Austria, others under own rule – Several small revolts break out to try to upset the conservative rule and create a unified Italy, but they fail Germany – German Confederation was made up of 38 states, Austria and Prussia the greatest – Frankfurt Assembly hopes to create a unified Germany, with civil rights and freedoms for people – A constitution is drafted, but there is no way to enforce it…unification fails
Exit Slip What did the Conservative Order hope to accomplish? Define liberalism. Define nationalism. How do both of these isms differ from conservatism?
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