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THE CONSERVATIVE ORDER Europe regains control after Napoleonic Wars 1815-1830.

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Presentation on theme: "THE CONSERVATIVE ORDER Europe regains control after Napoleonic Wars 1815-1830."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE CONSERVATIVE ORDER Europe regains control after Napoleonic Wars 1815-1830

2 CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1815 ► Europe’s major powers were determined to restore order after the dual forces of liberalism and nationalism arose in the late 18 th century ► The 4 major enemies of France meet to discuss peace settlement and new era of Conservatism

3 THE PEACE SETTLEMENT ► Leaders of Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia met ► They restored the Bourbon Dynasty to France ► Leaders guided by principles of Legitimacy and Balance of Power LOUIS XVIII

4 KEY PLAYERS ► Castlereagh (Britain) ► Talleyrand (France) ► Metternich (Austria) was the leader who hated liberalism and nationalism ► He sought a return to the Old Order Klemens von Metternich

5 CONSERVATIVE IDEOLOGY ► Reaction against French Revolution ► Drew ideas from Edmund Burke’s book ► Citizens have duty to state- a partnership ► No violent overthrows ► No sudden change ► Obedience to political authority (Monarchy) ► Organized religion crucial ► No Civil liberties ► Community over individuals

6 METTERNICH LED 4 SESSIONS OF “CONGRESS” ► Congress of Vienna (1815) members agreed to meet periodically to maintain proper order ► 1) Aix-la-Chapelle 1818 Adds France to alliance ► 2) Troppau 1820 Established Principle of Intervention ► 3) Laibach 1821 Restored Bourbons to Italy ► 4) Verona 1822 France ok’ed to crush Spanish rebels

7 LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE ► Principle of Intervention could not extend to Latin America as many countries gain independence ► Venezuela ► Columbia ► Chile ► Lima ► Brazil

8 GREEK INDEPENDENCE ► In 1821, Greeks rebel against their long-time landlords- the Ottoman Turks ► Greek Independence Movement transformed into noble cause. ► In 1827, British and France combine to bring down Ottoman fleet ► In 1830, Greeks win hard fought Independence ► A victory for liberals and nationalists

9 19 th CENTURY “ISMS” LIBERALISM ► Liberalism’s origins could be found in the Enlightenment and American and French Revolutions ► Tenets included; Civil Liberties Freedom Religious tolerance Anti-censorship Laissez-Faire Economics Extended suffrage Executive branch checked by constitution

10 KEY PLAYER- THOMAS MALTHUS ► Thomas Malthus (Essay on the Principle of Population) believed population would surpass food supply. He theorized that while food increased arithmetically, population increased geometrically. Misery and poverty was the result.

11 KEY PLAYER – DAVID RICARDO ► David Ricardo argued in his book, Principles of Political Economy, that an increase in population would mean an abundance of workers which would suppress wages =“Iron law of wages”

12 JOHN STUART MILL ► English philosopher ► Most famous book, On Liberty (1859) ► Considered definitive statement on individual liberty ► Wrote of women’s rights in his classic, On the Subjection of Women (1867) ► Important book for 19 th century women’s movement

13 NATIONALISM ► Origins in French Revolution and their ability to marshal support for the war effort ► Refers to an awareness of being part of a community ► Belonging to a nation ► Focus on an individual’s loyalty ► Political borders to be determined by cultural similarities

14 EARLY SOCIALISM ► Pitiful conditions of early Industrial Revolution gave rise to ideology known as Socialism ► Later associated with Marxism, early Socialists believed economic and social equality and human cooperation was better than competition ► Sometimes called, Utopian Socialists, members were against private property

15 KEY PLAYERS Charles Fourier: Proposed small communities - phalansteries – with 1620 folks Robert Owen tried to establish communes in Scotland & Indiana in 1820s Louis Blanc’s Organization of Work called for gov’t asst. Flora Tristan was a utopian socialist & feminist- Worker’s union

16 REVOLUTION & REFORM 1830-1850 ► In 1830, forces of liberalism, nationalism and revolution began to break through the conservative stranglehold on Europe ► It began in 1830 in France when King Charles X issued The July Ordinances- Immediately caused The July Revolution which deposed the King in favor of his cousin Louis-Philippe Louis Philippe 1830-1848

17 LOUIS PHILIPPE: THE BOURGEOIS MONARCH ► Constitutional changes that favored the bourgeois were instituted ► Opposition soon emerged as Louis Philippe’s government failed to placate the working class

18 REVOLUTIONARY OUTBURSTS IN BELGIUM, POLAND, AND ITALY ► While liberalism played a key role in the French Rev. of 1830, nationalism played a key role in revolutions elsewhere ► Belgium rose up against the Dutch in 1830 successfully ► Not so successful for the Italians (Austrian control) & Poles (Russian control)

19 REFORM IN GREAT BRITAIN ► The ruling elite in Britain (Whigs) realized reform was needed to avoid revolution. They passed a election reform bill in 1832 given voice to previously ignored districts and eligible voters doubled in number. Also Poor Laws enacted in 1834 and Corn Laws repealed in 1846.

20 REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 ► By 1848, forces of liberalism & nationalism arose ► Starts again in France ► Under the leadership of Adolphe Thiers, Radical Republicans seize the government and set up Provisional Gov’t ► Before too long, only Russia & Great Britain remained untouched by revolution Adolphe Thiers

21 GROWING SPLIT IN FRANCE ► Moderate Republicans split with Radical Republics ► Unemployment surged and government forced to close national workshops (Louis Blanc) ► Workers revolted and gov’t crushed uprising ► New Constitution in 1848 established the Second Republic with Napoleon’s nephew (Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte) as ruler Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte

22 REVOLUTIONS IN CENTRAL EUROPE: GERMANY ► News of the revolution in France spread quickly ► Government in Germany moved to enact changes to prevent revolution ► Including; anti-censorship, male suffrage, a new constitution ► Frankfort Assembly led the way in reform ► However, Frankfort Assembly soon disbanded and the reform impulse with it

23 REVOLUTION OF 1848: AUSTRIA ► News of Paris encourage Austria to erupt in flames in 1848 ► Hungarian liberals under Louis Kossuth wanted own legislature ► Metternich flees as Buda, Prague, and Vienna revolt ► Emperor Ferdinand I makes concessions but waits for his chance to regain control – he abdicates in favor of Francis Joseph I ► Hungarian revolt only crushed after Russian’s helped in 1849 ► The Revolutions in Austria had failed Francis Joseph

24 REVOLUTIONS IN ITALIAN STATES ► Leader of Italy risorgimento (resurgence) was Giuseppe Mazzini, a devoted nationalist ► He founded Young Italy and Italian states rose up in 1848 against their Austrian landlords ► Rebellions across Italy soon crushed by Austrians & French Guiseppe Mazzini

25 FAILURES OF 1848 ► Throughout Europe in 1848, popular revolts made short-term gains ► Conservative regimes quickly regained control ► Why? ► Lack of unity among revolutionaries ► Liberals retrenched due to fear of social chaos ► Minorities in Austria fought each other – lacked unity

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