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Revolutions in Europe and Latin America

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1 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America
Chapter 4 sections 1 and 2

2 Conservatives vs. Liberals
Prefer the Old Order Restore royal families to throne Lower classes should respect and obey social superiors Established Church Natural rights and constitutional gov’t leads to chaos Promise freedom Mostly middle class, bourgeoisie Business leaders, bankers, lawyers, newspaper editors, writers Written constitution, separation of powers Universal manhood suffrage Free Market - capitalism

3 Old Order is Challenged in Central Europe
Serbia- first Balkan people to revolt Karageorge vs, Ottomans, unsuccessful but fostered sense of Serbian identity 1815 – Milos Obrenovic led revolt and turned to Russia for help 1830 Serbs won autonomy (self-rule) Greece revolt vs. Ottomans Years of wars helped shape a national identity Has support of Britain, France, Russia- forced Ottomans to grant independence to some Greek provinces European powers pressured Greeks to accept German king *Uprisings in Spain, Portugal and Italy were crushed by conservative rulers

4 French Rebels - 1830 Restored Louis XVIII to throne
Issued Constitution- Charter of French Liberties 2 House legislature, limited freedom of the press, King retained most power

5 July Revolution Louis XVIII died 1824
Throne inherited by Charles X – absolute ruler July 1830 suspended legislature, limited vote, restricted the press Rebels revolted in Paris barricading streets Charles X fled to England and abdicated

6 Citizen King Moderate Liberals chose constitutional monarchy
Louis Phillipe new king, cousin of Charles X, supported 1789 revolution Owed throne to the people, favored middle class Liberal bourgeoisie prospered Extended suffrage but only to wealthier citizens

7 Spread of Reform Belgium wins independence inspired by Paris uprising, students threw up barricades in Brussels Britain and France assisted under the belief that a separation of Belgium and Holland (united under Congress of Vienna) would benefit them 1831 – independent with liberal constitution Poland – uprisings crushed by Russian forces

8 French Revolt of 1848 February Angry crowds to the streets protesting recession and government oppression Louis Phillipe abdicated, proclaimed Second Republic (1st from before Napoleon) June Days: upper- and middle-class interests won control, workers took to the streets with violence 1500 people killed before government crushed violence

9 New Napoleon National Assembly issued constitution- created strong president, one-house legislature, vote to all adult males Louis Napoleon, elected president – presented himself as caring about social issues Used power as stepping stone, declaring himself emperor in 1852 People voted to set up Second Empire: rapid economic growth

10 Revolutions in Europe Austrian Empire: Louis Kossuth in Hungary demanded independent government, students protested in many cities – government gave in to demands temporarily Italy: Nationalists wanted to end Hapsburg power and revolutionaries set up republics. Austrian and French forces restored order and Pope in Rome German States: University students demanded national unity and liberal reforms. Republic or monarchy? Rebellion faded due to military force and lack of mass support

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