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Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism,

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Presentation on theme: "Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815 - 1850
Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism,

2 The Conservative Order
The Concert of Europe Congress of Vienna Prince Klemens von Metternich New balance of power Germanic Confederation Napoleon’s escape from Elba

3 Conservative Domination:
Ideology of Conservatism From Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution of France Obedience to political authority Organized religion was crucial to social order Hated revolutionary upheavals Unwilling to accept liberal demands or representative government Principle of Intervention Quadruple Alliance Allied intervention in Spain and Italy

4 Europe after the Congress of Vienna
©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license

5 Latin American, Greek Revolts
Revolt in Latin America Bourbon monarchy of Spain toppled Latin American countries begin declaring independence Simón Bolivar ( ) José de San Martín ( ) Britain began to dominate Latin American economy The Greek Revolt, Intervention could support revolution as well Greek revolt in, 1820 Britain, France, Russia at war Treaty of Adrianople, 1829

6 Latin America in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license

7 Conservative Domination: The European States
Great Britain: Rule of the Tories Landowning classes dominate Parliament Tory and Whig factions; Tories dominate Restoration of France Intervention in the Italian States and Spain Central Europe, the German Confederation Austrian Empire Russia Rural, agricultural, and autocratic Alexander I ( ) Nicholas I ( )

8 The Balkans by 1830 ©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

9 Ideologies of Change Liberalism Nationalism
Economic liberalism (classical economics) Laissez-faire Political liberalism Ideology of political liberalism David Ricardo ( ), John Stuart Mill, On Liberty Supported Women’s rights On the Subjection of Women Nationalism Part of a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs The community is called a “nation” Nationalist ideology Allied with liberalism

10 Ideologies of Change (cont.)
Early Socialism Early socialism (utopian societies) Robert Owen ( ) New Lanark, Scotland New Harmony, Indiana Frances Wright, Nashoba, Tennessee Louis Blanc Flora Tristan

11 The Distribution of Language in Nineteenth-Century Europe
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12 Revolution and Reform, 1830-1850
The Revolutions of 1830 Charles X ( ) Revolt by liberals Louis-Philippe ( ) The bourgeois monarch Constitutional changes favor the upper bourgeoisie Roll of nationalism Austrian Netherlands given to Dutch Republic Revolt by the Belgians Revolt attempts in Poland and Italy Revolts led to reform in Britain

13 The Revolutions of 1848 Another French Revolution
Scandals, graft, corruption, and failure to initiate reform Louis-Philippe abdicates, February 24, 1848  Provisional government established Elections to be by universal manhood suffrage National workshops Growing split between moderate and liberal republicans Second Republic established Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected in December, 1848

14 Revolution in Central Europe
French revolts led to promises of reform Frederick William IV ( ) Frankfurt Assembly Austrian Empire Louis Kossuth, Hungary Metternich flees the country Hungary’s wishes granted Concessions will led to greater demands Francis Joseph I ( )

15 Revolts in the Italian States
Giuseppe Mazzini ( ) Young Italy, 1831 Goal: a united Italy Cristina Belgioioso ( ) 1848 revolutions Rebellions began in Sicily Rulers promised reforms Charles Albert ( ) calls for war against Austria Revolutions ended in failure

16 The Maturing of the United States
The American Constitution contained forces of liberalism and nationalism Alexander Hamilton ( ), Federalist Thomas Jefferson ( ), Republican Effects of War of 1812 John Marshall ( ) Andrew Jackson ( ), Democracy 

17 Emergence of an Ordered Society
New Police Forces Serjents British Bobbies Schutzmannschaft Prison Reform Walnut Street Prison, Petite Roquette, Pentonville

18 The Mood of Romanticism
Emotion, sentiment, and inner feelings Tragic figure Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ( ), The Sorrows of the Young Werther Individualism Interest in the past Grimm Brothers Hans Christian Andersen Walter Scott Gothic literature Edgar Allan Poe ( ) Mary Wallstonecraft Shelley ( ) Experimentation with drugs

19 Romantic Poets and the Love of Nature
Percy Bysshe Shelley ( ) Prometheus Unbound Lord Byron ( ) Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage William Wordsworth ( ) The mysterious force of nature

20 Romanticism in Art and Music
Casper David Friedrich ( ) God and nature Joseph Malford William Turner Eugène Delacroix ( ) Passion for color Music Ludwig van Beethoven ( ) Frenchman Hector Berlioz Revival of Religion Catholicism Protestantism

21 Discussion Questions How do the revolts in Latin America affect the trading patterns with Europe? How was the Greek revolt against the Ottoman Empire transformed into a noble cause? How does Russia’s actions affect the cause of Greek independence? How did the Romantic view society and the social conventions of the day?

22 Web Links Congress of Vienna Quintuple Alliance Simon Bolivar
Utopian Socialism Revolutions of 1848 Gothic Literature Eugene Delacroix

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