2French RebelsThe Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne.He issued the Charter of French Liberties. This:Created a two-house legislatureAllowed limited freedom of the pressLouis XVIII still had a lot of power.
4Citizens Lead the July Revolution Louis XVIII died in 1824.His brother, Charles X, took over the throne.Charles was an absolutist. In July of 1830 he:Suspended the legislatureRestricted the pressLimited the right to voteThe citizens were unhappy.
6Liberals and radicals respond with force in Paris. They barricaded the narrow streets.They shot at soldiers and threw rocks and roof tiles at them.They took over Paris.Charles X abdicated and fled to England.
8“Citizen King” Rules France With no king, radicals wanted to set up a republic.Moderate liberals preferred a constitutional monarchy.They chose Louis Philippe as king, the revolutionary cousin of Charles X.He was called the “citizen king” because his power came from the people.
11Louis Philippe Louis Philippe: Was friends with the bourgeoise Dressed like themExtended suffrage to wealthy citizensFavored the middle class at the expense of the workers
12Reform Spreads“When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.” - MetternichThe revolution in France triggered revolutions across Europe.Most were stopped.This still shook up the rulers, and encouraged reform.
13Success: BelgiumThe Congress of Vienna had united the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) and the Kingdom of Holland under the Dutch king.Belgian citizens fought against Dutch troops.Britain and France supported Belgium and they became independent in 1831.BelgiumHollandFrench-speakingDutch-speakingCatholicProtestantManufacturersTraders
15Failure: PolandAfter being divided, most of Poland was given to Russia in Congress of Vienna.The Polish people revolted against Russian forces and were crushed.Many fled to Western Europe and the United States.
16Another French Revolt in 1848 In the 1840s people began to be unhappy again.Causes for unhappiness:Corruption in Louis Philippe's governmentRecessionLack of suffrageConditions like 1789
18“February Days”In February 1848 chaos broke out in the streets when the government kicked the critics out of public meetings.Streets were blocked by the public.Louis Philippe abdicated.Socialist leaders created the Second Republic.
20“June Days” Upper and middle class didn't like the national workshops. In June, the middle class again rioted in the streets against the socialists.
21A New NapoleonBy the end of 1848 the National Assembly issued a constitution for the Second Republic.The constitution:Created a powerful presidentA one-house legislatureSuffrage to all adult menThis was the widest suffrage in the world at the timeThe people elected Louis Napoleon (nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte)They thought he was a common man
23Napoleon declared himself emperor (Napoleon III) and ended the republic. He used a plebiscite to win public approval to seize power.He enjoyed economic prosperity but eventually got too adventurous.
24Revolution Surges Through Europe Workers needed relief from the miseries of the industrial revolution.The Middle-class liberals wanted more political power and more rights for men.These grievances, as well as the 1848 revolts in Paris, sparked a new wave of European revolution.
25Austria Metternich censored the press. Literature was smuggled. Revolts broke out.Metternich resigned and fled in disguise.Louis Kossuth, a journalist, led Hungarian nationalists who demanded:An independent governmentAn end to serfdomA written constitution to protect basic rightsThe Austrian government agreed, though this only lasted a moment before they destroyed the rebels.
26ItalyIn Italy, Nationalists wanted to set up a constitutional government.Italians set up independent republics.Revolutionaries expelled the pope.Austrian troops ended the new governments.The French army restored the pope to power in Rome.
27German States Germans suffered: A potato famineEconomic hard timesPrussian liberals forced King Frederick William IV to agree to a constitution written by elected officials. He dissolved the assembly within a year.The Frankfurt Assembly met throughout and offered the crown of Germany to Prussia's Frederick William IV.