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Social Structure Chapter 4.  An individual’s statuses and roles are limited an unchanging  TRUE: Individuals cannot affect the statuses and roles into.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Structure Chapter 4.  An individual’s statuses and roles are limited an unchanging  TRUE: Individuals cannot affect the statuses and roles into."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Structure Chapter 4

2  An individual’s statuses and roles are limited an unchanging  TRUE: Individuals cannot affect the statuses and roles into which they are born  FALSE: Individuals will take on many different statuses and roles throughout the course of their lives Truth or Fiction?

3  Informal interaction has little effect on the functioning of formal organizations  TRUE: There are few or no informal interactions in formal organizations  FALSE: Although formal organizations are dominated by formal interactions, informal interactions have a strong influence on these organizations as well Truth or Fiction

4  Society is made up of interrelated parts  Social structure gives us enduring characteristics  Makes patterns of human activity predictable Building Blocks of Social Structure

5  Social Structure: network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction  Status: socially defined position in a group or in a society  Role: the behavior-the rights and obligations-expected of someone occupying a particular status Building Blocks

6  We can hold multiple statuses  Male, on, brother, teacher, American, etc.  Statuses help define where we fit in society and how we relate to each other Status

7  We can control some statuses, some we cannot  Ascribed status: assigned status according to qualities beyond a person’s control  Not based on abilities, efforts, or accomplishments  Inherited traits or assigned at an age  Teenager/adult/retired  Achieved status: status through direct efforts  Skills, knowledge, or abilities Ascribed and Achieved Status

8  We all have many statuses…but we rank one the most important  Master status: status that plays the greatest role in shaping our life and determines social identity  Achieved or ascribed  Changes over lifetime Master Status

9  Statuses serve as social categories  Roles bring statuses to life  You occupy a status, you play a role  You play roles associated with your status  Reciprocal roles: roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses  In order to be a husband…you need a wife  Doctor/patient, athlete/coach, boss/employee, etc. Roles

10  Role Expectations: socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role  Parents: love and protect their children  Doctor: treat patients with care  Role performance: actual role behavior  Doesn’t always match expected behavior Role Expectations and Performance

11  It’s possible we have multiple roles to play in one status  Different roles attached to a single status is a role set  Possible contradictory expectations within/between role sets  Role conflict: occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another.  Doctor/Parent Role Conflict/Strain

12  Role strain: occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status  Coach making team practice long hours to win Role Conflict/Strain

13  When statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society, the group is called a social institution  Providing physical and emotional support, transmitting knowledge, producing goods and services, and maintaining social control Social Institutions

14  Name some ways we interact  5 common ways we interact: exchange, competition, conflict, cooperation, and accommodation 4.2 Types of Social Interaction

15  When we interact to receive a reward or return for our actions that is an exchange  Suggested as the most basic and common interaction  Reciprocity: the idea that if you do something for someone, they owe you something in return  Basis for exchange  Rewards may be material and nonmaterial  Exchange theory: ppl are motivated by self-interest in their interactions with other people Exchange

16  What is competition?  Competition: occurs when 2 or more ppl or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain  Promotes many advancements; business, school, gov’t  As long as comp follows accepted rules of conduct…mostly seen as positive  Negative aspects: stress, inequality, conflict, lack of cooperation Competition

17  Competition we focus on achieving the goal  Conflict we focus on defeating the opponent  Conflict: deliberate attempt to control a person by force, oppose someone, or to harm someone  Few rules of conduct, most are ignored anyway  4 sources of conflict: wars, disagreements w/in groups, legal disputes, and clashes over ideology  Religion, ideology, politics  Businesses, loyalty, social change Conflict

18  What does it mean to cooperate?  Football team, fans, band…shared win  Cooperation: 2 or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit multiple people Cooperation

19  Many of our interactions we neither cooperate nor have conflict.  What do you think we do^^^^^^^^^^?  Accommodation: state of balance between cooperation and conflict  Hotel stay  Compromise  Mediation Accommodation

20  Role behavior often takes place in groups  Group: set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity  Largest/complex groups are societies  Sociologists classify societies according to:  Subsistence strategies: the way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members 4.3 Types of Societies

21  Preindustrial: food prod. carried out by human and animal labor, is the main economic activity  Subdivisions of preindustrial societies  Hunting & gathering: collection of wild plants and hunting wild animals  Nomads, small societies, relatively equal Preindustrial Societies

22  Pastoral society: rely on domesticated herd animals to meet food needs  Nomadic, larger societies  Division of labor: specialization of individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities  Craft workers, weapons, jewelry, farmer, smith  Promotes trade = inequality Preindustrial Societies

23  Horticultural societies: fruits and vegetables grown in a garden specifically cleared  Crop rotation = semi/permanent settlements (villages)  Surplus food = complex division of labor  Craftspeople, religious leaders, traders  Large amount of artifacts  Economic and political systems Preindustrial Societies

24  Agricultural societies: animals are used to pull plows to till the fields  Plant more crops, irrigation, terracing  High crop yields = very large populations  Even more specialized roles  Development of cities, power to single people  Building of armies, construction of roads, more trade  Abandon barter: exchange of good for a service  $ invented, system of writing, statuses Preindustrial Societies

25  Industrial societies: shift from food production to manufactured goods  Machines instead of humans  Advanced technologies  More food = ^ pop.  More industry = < farmers (focus more on goods) Industrial Societies

26  The advancements in technology make it possible to manufacture a wider variety of goods  Changes the location of work  Rural farm to the cities. Urbanization: concentration of the population in cities  More productivity, less skill required  Religion is challenged by science  Freedom to compete for social positions Industrial Societies

27  Postindustrial: much of the economy is involved in providing information and services  (73% of U.S. workforce)  2% agricultural  25% goods production  Standard of living is greater along with wages  Emphasis on science and education  Individual rights and personal fulfillment Postindustrial Societies

28  Durkheim believed preindustrial societies were held together by mechanical solidarity: when ppl share the same values and perform the same tasks, they become united as a common whole  As division of labor becomes more complex, MS gives way to organic solidarity: individuals can no longer provide for all their own needs, they depend on others to survive Contrasting Societies

29  Ferdinand Tönnies (German) interested in simple/complex societies  Gemeinschaft: close relat. Activities center around family/community  Gesellschaft: based on need rather than emotion. Impersonal relationships. Individual goals > group Contrasting Societies

30  Every individual in society participates in a group  What is a group?  A group has 4 major features: 1.2+ people 2.Interaction among members 3.Shared expectations 4.Posses sense of common identity  The last 3 distinguish a group from an aggregate or social category 4.4 Groups Within Society

31  Aggregate: when ppl gather in the same place at the same time but lack organization or lasting patterns  Ppl on an airplane, waiting for tickets, checkout  Social Category: means of classifying people according to a shared trait or common status  Students, women, teenagers, left-handed people  Groups differ in size and length of time they’re together Groups Within Society

32  Dyad: smallest group possible, 2 members  Triad: 3 person group  Small group: few enough members to interact face to face  Sociologists have found 15 is the largest # Size

33  Some groups meet once, then never again  Some exist for many years (who would?)  Interaction is not continuous (not 24 hours a day) Time

34  2 types of organization  Formal: structure, goals, and activities are clearly defined  Student council  Informal: no official structure or est. rules of conduct  Your circle of friends Organization

35  Primary group: small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct personal bias  entire self of the individual is taken into account  Intimate relationships, often fact-to-face  Deep communication, often informal  Family is probably most common Types of Groups

36  Secondary group: interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature  Only part of the individual is involved  Casual and limited in personal involvement  Classroom, factory, political party Types of Groups

37  Reference group: any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt  Students: Friends or school clubs  Adults: members of a particular occupation  As we grow we change our reference groups  Both positive and negative effects on behavior Types of Groups

38  When a groups boundaries are clearly marked, we think in terms of in-groups and out-groups  In-groups: group that a person belongs to and identifies with  Have 3 things: separate from other groups through symbols, members view themselves positively and out- groups in negative terms, and in-groups compete with out-groups  Out-groups: any group a person does not belong to or identify with Types of Groups

39  Social network: the web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people  Direct and indirect relationships  Unlike groups, social networks don’t have clear boundaries and no common sense of identity  Sense of community Types of Groups

40  Must determine boundaries to determine who belongs and who doesn’t  Must select a leader: ppl who influence the attitudes and opinions of others  2 types of leaders:  Instrumental: task-oriented. Find means that will help the group reach its goals  expressive: emotion-oriented. Find ways to keep the group together and maintain moral  Other group functions: goals, tasks, decisions Group Functions

41  Formal organization: large, complex, secondary group est. to achieve specific goals  School, business, gov’t, religious & political orgs, unions  Bureaucracy: ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures  Most formal organizations work under one  Rationality: subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement and control Structure of Formal Organizations

42  According to Weber, bureaucracies have these charact.  Division of labor  Ranking of authority  Employment based on formal qualifications  Rules and regulations  Specific lines of promotion and advancement  Voluntary association: non-prof to purse common interest Weber’s Model of Bureaucracies

43  Create order, define tasks/rewards, stability  Lose sight of original goals  Abandon them for self-continuation (EPA)  Strict adherent to rules/regs “Red Tape”  Tendency to end up like oligarchies  Peter Principle Effectiveness of Bureaucracies?


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