2 Social StructureSocial structure gives society its enduring characteristics and makes patterns of human interaction predictable.Social structure: the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction.
3 Status Status: A socially defined position in a group or in a society. Each status has attached to it one or more roles.Each individual in society occupies several statuses.Statuses are ways of defining where individuals fit in society and how they relate to others in society
4 Ascribed StatusAscribed: Based on a person’s inherited traits or are assigned automatically when a person reaches a certain age.Teen or young adult due to age…You didn’t earn it, not can you do anything about it.Ex. Sex, family heritage, race, etc. (write down one example)
5 Achieved StatusAchieved: Acquired through your own direct efforts, special skills, knowledge, or abilities.Ex. the status of baseball player is achieved because of physical ability and knowledge of the game.People have some control over their achieved status.All occupations are achieved statuses, as are husband/wife, parent, high school or college grad
6 Master StatusOf all the statuses you have, one tends to take rank over all others.Master Status: the status that plays the biggest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity.Can be ascribed or achieved.
7 Master StatusAn adult in the U.S. usually has an achieved master status.Ex. Occupation, wealth, marital status, parenthood, etc.
8 Master Status Master status can change throughout your life. Teen- Student or athleteAdulthood- OccupationLate adulthood- Volunteer work, hobbies, grandparenthood, past accomplishments
9 RolesStatuses are social categories, whereas roles are the component that brings social structure to life.“You occupy a status, but you play a role.” (Linton)At home you play the role of son or daughter. At school you may play the role of student.
10 RolesYou may also perform roles that go along with the status of athlete, cast of the play, student mentor, etc.
11 Reciprocal RolesReciprocal Roles: Corresponding roles that define the patterns of social interaction between related statuses.Ex. one cannot fulfill the role associated with the status of husband without having someone else perform the role that goes along with the status of wife.Ex. doctor-patient, friend-friend, employer-employee, sales clerk-customer
12 Role Expectations and Role Performance Ideally, when people interact with one another their behavior corresponds to the particular roles they are playing.Role Expectations: Socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role.What are some examples of role expectations?
13 Role Expectations and Role Performance Role Performance: Actual role behavior.Unfortunately, role behavior does not always match the behavior expected by society.Problems can arise because role behaviors considered appropriate by a certain segment are seen as inappropriate by society as a whole.
14 Role Conflict and Role Strain Even within a single status, there are many interested roles to perform.Role Sets- The different roles attached to a single status.Because we hold many different statuses, we must deal with many role sets in our daily lives.Contradictions between our role sets can lead to conflict and role strain
15 Role ConflictOccurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status.
16 Role ConflictEx. To be a good employee an individual needs to go to work. However, to be a good parent, that person needs to stay home and take care of a sick child.
18 Role StrainOccurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status.
19 Role StrainEx. A boss trying to maintain the morale of his workers while asking them to work long overtime hours.
20 Social InstitutionsStatuses and their related roles determine the structure of various groups in society.Social Institutions- System of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society.Basic Needs: provide physical and emotional support, transmit knowledge, produce goods and services, maintain social control.
21 ExchangeExchange- Individual, group, or social interaction undertaken in an effort to receive a reward in return for actions.Almost all daily interaction involves exchange.“Exchange is the most common form of interaction.” (Blau)Dating, family life, friendship, politics all involve exchange.
22 ExchangeReciprocity- The idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return.Reciprocity is the basis of exchange.Rewards for reciprocity can be material and nonmaterial.
23 Exchange TheoryExchange Theory- Believes that people are motivated by self-interest in their interactions with other people.Behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated.When costs of an interaction outweigh rewards; individuals are likely to end a relationship.(Exchange Theory= Maximize Rewards, Minimize Costs)
24 Assignment Page 68 Section 1 Review #2-3 Page 70 think About It #1-2 Try to write 2 to 3 sentences for each question
25 CompetitionOccurs when 2 or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain.Competition is about achieving the goal.Cornerstone of the capitalist economic system and the democratic form of government
26 CompetitionViewed as positive as long as it follows accepted rules of conduct.Competition can lead to psychological stress, a lack of cooperation in social relationships, inequality and even conflict.
27 ConflictThe deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person.Conflict is about defeating the enemy.Conflict has few rules of conduct, and even these are often ignored.
28 4 Sources of Conflict War Disagreements Legal Disputes Clashes over ideology (religious or political)Conflicts sometimes begin as competition (businesses, politics)Conflict can be positive by reinforcing group boundaries and strengthening group loyalty by focusing on an outside threat.
29 CooperationCooperation: Occurs when 2 or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person.A social process that gets things done.Competition can be used along with cooperation to motivate group members to work harder.
30 AccommodationAccommodation is the state of balance between cooperation and conflict.Ex. Staying at a hotel…
31 Accommodation 4 Types of Accommodation: Compromise: Give up something to come to a mutual agreement.Truce: Brings conflict to a halt until a compromise can be reached.
32 AccommodationMediation: A form of accommodation involving a 3rd party who acts as an advisor or counselor to help the 2 parties reach an agreement.Arbitration: When a 3rd party makes decision that is binding on both parties.Ex. child support or MLB
33 GroupGroup: A set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and possess some degree of common identity.Societies are the largest and most complex groups that sociologists study.
34 GroupsSociologists classify societies according to subsistence strategies; the way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members.3 Categories of Subsistence Strategies:PreindustrialIndustrialPost Industrial
35 Preindustrial Types of Preindustrial societies Hunting and Gathering Pastoral societiesHorticultural societiesAgricultural societies
36 What is a Group?In sociological terms, a group has four major features.It must consist of two or more people.There must be interaction between group members.The members of the group must have shared expectations.The members must possess some sense of common identity.
37 What is a Group?The last three features- interaction, shared expectations, and a common identity- distinguish a group from an aggregate or social category.An aggregate is a group of people gathering in the same place at the same time but they lack organization or lasting patterns of interaction.Ex. People on an airplane, people standing in a ticket line at a movie.
38 What is a Group?In the case of social categories it is not necessary for people to interact in any way.A social category is simply a means of classifying people according to a shared trait or a common status.Ex. Students, women, teenagers, left-handed people
39 Organization of Groups Organization of groups can be formal or informal.In a formal group, the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined.Ex. Student governmentIn an informal group there is no official structure or established rules of conduct.Ex. Your group of friends
40 Reference GroupsPeople usually perform their social roles and judge their own behaviors according to standards set by a particular group.They do not have to belong to this group, but when people identify with the group’s standards and attitudes, the group influences their behavior.Any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt is called a reference group.