Opening Prompt Question: War can be costly. Make a list of all the expenses a war can create.
Student Expectations SE: Analyze the impact of England’s new economic policies (taxes) for the colonists.
Pontiac’s War (1762-1763) Even though the French had been defeated and removed from the Ohio River Valley, many hostile Natives still lived there. United by Chief Pontiac, Indian nations attacked and captured several British forts in a few short months. British and colonial troops then struck back and regained much of what they had lost.
Pontiac’s War Once the Natives realized they would no longer receive help from the French, they stopped fighting and returned home. The British realized that pushing further west across the Appalachians would lead to further conflicts with Native Americans
Proclamation of 1763 Due to Pontiac’s rebellion and the costly French and Indian War, the British officials decided to stop colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. English Parliament (lawmakers) issued the Proclamation of 1763, forbidding new settlements west of the Appalachian mountains.
Proclamation of 1763 The Proclamation also forced settlers who had moved into this land to move back, east of the Appalachian’s. In order to enforce this new law Britain sent 10,000 soldiers to the 13 colonies.
Sugar / Stamp Act Due to the French and Indian War, England was in great debt (owed money). In order to pay off their debt, British Parliament (lawmakers) decided to tax the colonists.
Sugar / Stamp Act One of the new taxes placed on colonists was known as the Sugar Act. The sugar act placed a tax on molasses. Most colonial merchants simply avoided the tax by smuggling molasses into the colonies. In 1764, the tax was lowered and British officials were given more power to enforce the law.
Sugar / Stamp Act In 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act which taxed anything printed on paper by requiring colonists to buy a stamp for paper products. This tax would include items such as diplomas, marriage papers, newspapers, playing cards, and even dice.
Sugar / Stamp Act “Do not even ponder the thought of selling or trading goods without THE ROYAL STAMP! If you choose to disobey this law a severe penalty will be paid.”
Protesting the Taxes The colonists were outraged by the new taxes. British officials were surprised by how upset the colonists seemed to be. Some British tax officials had been “tarred and feathered.” Some colonists would even throw rocks at agents trying to collect the unpopular taxes
Protesting Taxes Colonists began a slogan, “No Taxation Without Representation!” Colonists insisted that only they, or their elected representatives, had the right to pass taxes. Since the colonists did not elect representatives to Parliament (British Government), then Parliament had no right to tax them.
Protesting Taxes “Our Colonies must be the biggest Beggars in the World, if such small Duties appear to be intolerable burdens in their eyes.” - British newpaper
Protesting Taxes Colonists took other steps to change the law. They joined together to boycott British goods. The boycott reduced British trade by 14% in the colonies and, by 1766, Parliament repealed (canceled) the stamp act.
Quartering Act Shocked by the Stamp Act protests Britain sent even more troops to keep order in the colonies. In 1765, the British Parliament passed the Quartering Act.
Quartering Act The Quartering Act made the colonists upset in two ways: First, housing and supplying the soldiers was costly. Second, soldiers essentially possessed the ability to search anyone's home whenever they pleased. Colonists lost their sense of rights over their own property.