Presentation on theme: "Lesson 6.1: Tighter British Control"— Presentation transcript:
1Lesson 6.1: Tighter British Control How did new British laws lead to greater tension between Parliament and American colonists?
2Vocabulary describe – give details about revenue – income for the government, often through taxeslevy – establish and collect a taxfrontier – the edge of the wildernessquartering – giving or receiving shelter and aid
3What We Already KnowUnder the Magna Carta of 1215, British subjects could not be taxed without the consent of their elected representatives in Parliament.
4What We Already KnowBetween 1754 and 1763, Britain fought France in the French and Indian War, and under the Treaty of Paris, gained control of all the land in North America east of the Mississippi.
5What We Already KnowWhen British settlers began moving across the mountains onto Native American land after the war, Indians began attacking settlers and British soldiers were called in to defend the colonists.
6The Colonies and Britain Grow Apart Before the French and Indian War, self-government in the American colonies grew.Salutary neglect – Parliament left the colonies alone
7The Colonies and Britain Grow Apart The costs of the war with France and of defending the frontier settlers threatened to ruin Britain unless changes were made.In 1763, Parliament began to reassert its authority over the colonies starting with the Proclamation of 1763.
8The Proclamation of 1763To prevent new Native American uprisings against the colonists, the British government passed the Proclama–tion of 1763.This law banned new settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains.
9The Proclamation of 1763The act caused tensions to grow between Parliament and the American colonists.
10The Proclamation of 1763The act caused tensions to grow between Parliament and the American colonists.The colonists were proud to have fought along–side the British army against the French and their Indian allies.But they also felt they had won the right to settle the Ohio River Valley because they helped defeat the French.
11The Proclamation of 1763The law angered many colonists, who decided to ignore it and settled the area anyway.The British government was angry, because the colonists were putting themselves at risk, but refusing to pay for their own defense.Resentment began to divide the colonies and Britain.
12British Troops and Taxes In order to enforce the proclamation and to maintain the peace, King George III decided to keep 10,000 soldiers in the colonies, which would be very expensive.
13British Troops and Taxes In 1765, Parliament passed the Quartering Act, which required colonists to give food and housing to British troops.Colonists could pay for the construction of barracks for the soldiers, or they could take them into their homes.Colonists were deeply angered by the Quartering Act.
14British Troops and Taxes Even with the Quartering Act, the British government still needed money to help repay its debts from the French and Indian War and to pay for troops to guard the frontier.
15British Troops and Taxes In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act, which levied a tax on sugar, molasses, and certain other imports.This was the first tax passed by the government without asking for the approval of colonial governments.
16Colonists’ Reaction to the Sugar Act Colonists complained that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies, since the colonists were not represented in Parliament.Parliament disagreed, because colonists were subjects of Britain, and had the protection of its laws.
17Colonists’ Reaction to the Sugar Act As Otis exclaimed, “Tax-ation without represen–tation is tyranny!”British finance minister George Grenville disagreed, saying that the colonists were subjects of Britain, and enjoyed the protection of its laws.For that reason, Grenville argued, they were subject to taxation.
18Britain Passes the Stamp Act The Stamp Act (1765) created revenue by levying a tax on legal and commercial documents.It required colonists to buy and place stamps on many goods such as diplomas, contracts, and newspapers.While the Sugar Act had mainly affected merchants and importers, the Stamp Act affected all colonists directly.But the Stamp Act was different from the Sugar Act in one important way.
19Protests Against the Stamp Act Once again, “No taxation without representation!” was the colonial battle cry.Delegates from nine colonies met in New York City (the Stamp Act Congress) and drew up a petition of protest to the king.They insisted that only the colonial assemblies – not Parliament – could tax the colonies.
20Colonial Merchants Protested They organized a boycott of British goods (a refusal to buy goods).Secret groups (e.g., the Sons of Liberty) formed, and began to organize protests against British policies.
21Colonial ProtestsThe Sons of Liberty burned stamped paper and attacked customs officials who collected the tax, tarring and feathering them and parading them in public.Many frightened officials quit their jobs.
22Repeal of the Stamp ActBritish merchants, whose trade had been hurt by the boycotts, began to complain to Parliament.Under pressure from home and the colonies, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766.At the same time, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act.“Parliament has the right to govern and tax the colonies!”
23Reaction to the Declaratory Act Colonists celebrated the repeal of the Stamp Act.Most ignored the Declaratory Act.But the tension between the colonies and the British government would continue to grow.