2 The Colonies and Britain Grow Apart After the French and Indian War, Britain wanted to govern the 13 colonies in a uniform wayBritain did not want to incite another revolt like Pontiac’s RebellionParliament passed the Proclamation of 1763, prohibiting colonists from settling west of the Appalachian MountainsProclamation angered colonists who wanted to move into the fertile Ohio River ValleyAlso upset speculators who had bought that land as an investmentMany colonists ignored the law and settled beyond the Proclamation’s limit
3 British Troops and Taxes Britain also decided that the colonists should pay for the debt accrued during the French and Indian War – Voted that they could tax colonists directly1764 ACE – Parliament passed the Sugar Act. It lowered import taxes on sugar, molasses, other products shipped to the colonies. It also enforced stricter punishments on smugglers and allowed customs officials to get writs of assistance, which allowed them to search the homes of colonists for smuggled goods without a traditional warrantKing George III decided to post 10,000 troops in the colonies to enforce the proclamation and keep peace with Native Americans1765 ACE – Parliament passed the Quartering Act, which required the colonists to house (“quarter”) soldiers and provide them with supplies. Most were housed in New York.Colonial leaders reacted with anger to the taxes.James Otis claimed Parliament had no right to tax the colonies directly seeing as the colonists had no voice or representation in Parliament (“Taxation without representation is tyranny”)British finance minister George Grenville that because the colonists enjoyed the benefits of British protection they were subject to taxation
4 Britain Passes the Stamp Act 1765 ACE – Parliament passed the Stamp ActStamp Act required all legal and commercial documents (such as diplomas, contracts, wills) and even other popular documents (newspapers, magazines, even playing cards!) to carry a stampColonists had to pay for the taxes in silver coin, which was scarce in the coloniesStamp Act affected many colonists as it taxed daily items that many colonists used, unlike the Sugar Act which taxed imported goods and mainly affected merchantsColonial leaders reacted angrilySamuel Adams, a member of the Massachusetts legislature, speculated that Parliament might begin to tax their lands and produce and workPatrick Henry called for a resistance to the act, in spite of resistance seeming treasonous
5 The Colonies Protest the Stamp Act October 1765 ACE – 9/13 colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in NY City1st instance of the colonies meeting up to protest togetherDelegates drew up a petition to protest the Act, claiming that colonial legislatures and not Parliament had the right to govern the coloniesColonial merchants organized a boycott, or refusal to buy British goodsSons of Liberty – a secret society of lawyers, merchants, and craftspeople who staged protests against the ActThey burned stamped paper, attacked customs officials (tar and feather), looted their homes. Many customs officials stopped doing their job out of fear.Merchants in England also began to fear that boycotts and the Stamp Act would hurt their business in the AmericasWilliam Pitt, a popular Parliamentary leader, spoke out against the Stamp Act, siding with the American leadersParliament repealed the Act in 1766 ACEPassed the Declaratory Act, which claimed that they had the supreme authority to govern the colonies
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