2 Parliament’s Financial Power Parliament is England’s legislature; they controlled “held the purse strings”Parliament’s financial power was an obstacle to English rulers becoming absolute monarchsIn 1603, James I becomes king; doesn’t want to share any power with ParliamentAlso fought with Puritans who wanted the church to be less like Catholic churches (more pure)
3 Charles I Fights Parliament 1625 Charles I becomes king; also an absolute monarchCharles needs money for war with Spain and FranceWhen Parliament refuses to give him money, he dissolves it (cancels it)he needs Parliament to give him moneyParliament won’t give it to him until he signs the “Petition of Right” in which he agrees not to raise taxes without Parliament’s consentCharles signs it, then ignores it
4 Charles I Unpopular Petition of Right important Idea that the law was higher than the kingContradicted theories of an absolute monarchy1629 – Charles dissolves Parliament again and refuses to call it backGets money by fees and fines on the English peopleMakes him very unpopular
5 English Civil WarPuritans and Protestants in Scotland unhappy with Charles trying to make them all follow the Anglican churchScots rebel and Charles needs money to fight themNeeds to call Parliament, which sees this as an opportunity to oppose himParliament passes laws limiting royal powerCharles tries to arrest Parliament’s leaders, but they escapeRiots force Charles to flee London and raise an army in the north
6 English Civil WarCharles fights back and Civil War begins (1642 – 1649)Supporters of Charles and the monarchy – CavaliersSupporters of Parliament – RoundheadsLeader of the Roundheads – Oliver Cromwell, PuritanRoundheads defeat Cavaliers
8 Charles I ExecutedCharles I is tried for treason against Parliament and executedFirst time in Europe that a ruling monarch had been tried publicly and executed by his own peopleParliament shows that in England, no ruler can claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law
11 Cromwell’s RuleAfter Charles is executed, Cromwell abolishes the monarchyDeclares England a republic, called the Commonwealth,1653 – Cromwell sends home ParliamentThe first constitution of any modern European state is written, but Cromwell eventually tears it up and becomes a military dictator
12 Puritan MoralityIn England, Cromwell and Puritans want to reform society by promoting Puritan moralityNo theater, sports or dancingReligious toleration for all Christians except Catholics
13 Restoration and Revolution After Cromwell dies, people tired of strict Puritanism and strict military ruleParliament asks Charles I’s son to rule EnglandCharles II comes to London amid cheering and happiness; becomes monarch in 1660Called the Restoration because the monarchy was restored
14 Charles II ReignsUnder Charles II, Parliament passes an important guarantee of freedom, habeas corpusPrisoners have right to know the charges against them and could not be held indefinitely without a trialA monarch could not put someone in jail simply for opposing the rulerHeir was his brother James, a Catholic
15 James II and the Glorious Revolution Next, James II becomes king; openly CatholicAppoints Catholics to high officeParliament protests, so James dissolves itWorried Protestants ask his daughter Mary and her husband William, who are Protestants, to become rulerWilliam leads his army into London in 1688James II flees – becomes known as the Glorious Revolution, the bloodless overthrow of the King James II
17 Limits on Monarch’s Power William and Mary promise to accept Parliament as a partner in governingEngland becomes a constitutional monarchy, where laws limit the ruler’s powerParliament writes the English Bill of Rights in 1689, listing things a monarch could not do:Suspend any of Parliament’s lawsNo levying taxes without Parliament’s approvalNo interfering with freedom of speech in ParliamentNo penalty for citizens who petitions the king about grievances (complaints)
18 A Cabinet System Develops After 1688, no British monarch could rule without the consent of ParliamentAnd Parliament could not rule without the consent of the monarchIf they disagreed, government came to a standstillSettled by development of a cabinet, a group of officials who acted in ruler’s name
19 So…England differs from most of Europe at the time by NOT having an absolute monarchyInstead, they have a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch’s power is limited by a constitution!
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