2BackgroundWhen Queen Elizabeth dies, there is no heir to the English throneThrone must go to a Stuart cousin from ScotlandWho was Queen Elizabeth’s father? Was from the Tudor line, now switches to Stuart line
3James I James I takes the English throne Agrees to rule according to English rules & customsBelieves in divine rightMust deal with dissentersBible is translated into King James Version (still exists today)Agrees to rule to customs, but does not, Parliament does not like him. Wants money all the time. Makes decisions without consent
4Charles I Takes throne after death of his father, James I Absolute monarchParliament wants him to sign the Petition of RightThis petition prohibited the king from raising taxes without the consent of ParliamentProhibited imprisonment without just causeWhy would parliament want him to sign this petition so badly?
5Charles I cont’d. Charles signs the petition, but dissolves Parliament Ruled for 11 years without calling parliament into sessionEventually, Charles I needs moneyParliament controls the $, so has to call back into session.
6Parliament & Charles IParliament reconvenes and tries and executes the King’s Chief AdministratorsAbolish bishops in the Church of EnglandCharles sends troops to the House of Commons to arrest membersParliament members escape & raise their own armyParliament tries to get revenge in policies. This starts the English Civil war.
7English Civil War Cavaliers Support King Charles Are wealthy nobles Trained in warfareThe Cavaliers were predicted to win.
8English Civil War Roundheads Hair cut in a bowl cut Country folk Mostly PuritanLead by Oliver Cromwell
9English Civil War The Roundheads defeat the Cavaliers King Charles I is executedThis is the First time that a monarch in Europe has been executed by its own people.Why is this so important? Do you think that the other monarch are going to feel secure in their positions now?
10England without a kingHouse of Commons names England a Commonwealth under the leadership of Oliver CromwellAbolishes monarchyAbolishes the House of LordsAbolishes the official Church of EnglandWhy would they abolish the Church of England- too much like Catholic church
11England under Cromwell Supporters of Charles I start rebellions in IrelandCromwell puts down rebellion & enforces strict rules on CatholicsCromwell welcomes Jews back into England after 350 years of exileWhy do you think Cromwell is hard on Catholics, but not on the Jews?
12Puritan beliefsParliament enforces strict laws that reflect Puritan beliefsLaws passed that closed theatres & pubsBut, the Puritans did promote literacyWanted all Christians to be able to read the Bible
13Cromwell diesThe time of Oliver Cromwell is referred to as the “Kingless Decade”Puritans lose their influence in EnglandPeople tired of the strictness
14The RestorationAfter Cromwell dies, Parliament lets Charles II take the throneCharles II reopens theatres and tavernsHas a court like Louis XIVIf he has a court like Louis XIV, what kind of court would that be?
15Charles II cont’d. Restores the Church of England Tolerant of other ProtestantsHeld the same attitudes of his father about the Catholic Church and divine right, but was smart enough not to show it
16James II Inherits throne after Charles II dies James II flaunts his Catholic faithPeople fear that he will restore the Catholic Church in England
17The Glorious Revolution Parliament invites James’ daughter Mary & her husband to come to England and take the throneWhen William & Mary come to England, James II flees to franceThis bloodless overthrow of a King is called the Glorious RevolutionWilliam & Mary are living in Orange France
18English Bill of Rights William & Mary had to accept or could not rule Stated that Parliament must be called regularlyThe House of Commons controlled the moneyBarred Roman Catholics from being on the throneRestated traditional rights of English citizensTrial by juryHabeas corpus- to be held in prison must be first charged with crime
19Absolutism in EnglandWith William and Mary’s acceptance of the English Bill of Rights, this began England’s limited monarchy