Presentation on theme: "SECTION 5- Parliament Limits the English Monarchy BIG IDEA- Absolute rulers in England were overthrown, and Parliament gained power."— Presentation transcript:
SECTION 5- Parliament Limits the English Monarchy BIG IDEA- Absolute rulers in England were overthrown, and Parliament gained power
Elizabeth Leaves Debt Since Elizabeth I fought many wars and had many expenses she left England with much debt Since she had no heir, her cousin, James Stuart, King of Scotland became king
James I’s problems James flat out told Parliament that “Kings are justly called Gods” He continued with England’s increasing debt issue James also offended powerful Puritan Parliament members by creating his own version of the Bible.
Charles I Fights Parliament In 1625, James died and his son Charles I took over He always needed money to fight both Spain and France When Parliament refused to give him funds, he dissolved Parliament
Charles I Fights Parliament However, 3 years later Charles desperately needed cash so he called Parliament back into session Parliament would not meet unless Charles signed the “Petition of Right” This document included 4 points that limited Charles’ power.
Limits placed on the English Throne from the Petition of Right 1. The Monarch could not imprison without due cause 2. The Monarch could not levy taxes without Parliament’s consent 3. The Monarch could not house soldiers in private homes 4. He could not impose martial law in peacetime.
The “Sun King” build Versailles However, those are just the beginning of why he was referred to as “The Sun King” He decided to play the title role in “The Sun King” his favorite ballet. Even more notable, he builds the immense Palace at Versailles which cost the French 25% of their entire economy to build and maintain. Louis moved all his nobles to Versailles and ran it like a small, incredibly wealthy village of nobility.
Charles Ignores the Petition Even though Charles did not follow the Petition of Right it was important in English history Charles would continue to offend members of parliament and his fellow countrymen Charles started a rebellion in Scotland where he needed more money to put the Scottish rebels down
English Civil War More war meant Charles needed more money Thus Charles had to call in Parliament once again. However, this time, Parliament would oppose him As Charles tried to arrest Parliament leaders, riots in London broke out Charles fled to Northern England, raised an army there of his supporters From 1642-1649, the English Civil War would be fought
English Civil War Rages On Those who were loyal to the king were called Royalists or Cavaliers Puritan supporters of parliament were nicknamed “Roundheads” By 1646, General Oliver Cromwell’s parliament army defeats the Cavaliers
Oliver Cromwell puts Charles on Trial In 1649, Charles was captured and put on trial for treason He was found guilty and sentenced to death Charles became the first king to ever be tried in a public court and then sentenced to execution
Oliver Cromwell Rules England After Charles was executed, Cromwell took over He abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords in England Cromwell had a English constitution, the first in any modern European state, drafted However, Cromwell eventually tore up that document and ruled as a military dictator
Cromwell as a Leader Cromwell puts down and Irish rebellion killing 616,000 Irish He made laws that promoted Puritan morality and abolished “sinful” activities such as theater He did offer religious toleration for all Christians, except Catholics He also welcomed back Jews, who were expelled from England in 1290
Britain after Cromwell After Cromwell, his son fails to continue Cromwell’s government In 1659, Parliament voted to ask Charles II, son of the executed Charles I, to come back and rule As he returned to London in 1660, crowds gathered and cheered Charles II as the Restoration, the period of Charles II’s reign as he restored the monarchy to power
Habeas Corpus The most important measure passed by Parliament during the Restoration time was an important guarantee of freedom known as Habeas Corpus Habeas Corpus a Latin term which means “to have the body” This the idea that every prisoner has the right to obtain a writ, or document, ordering that the prisoner should be brought before a judge to specify charges against them. The judge then decides if they are charged or set free
Habeas Corpus Because of the Habeas Corpus Act, a monarch could not just imprison someone for just opposing the King. This also meant that prisoners could not just be held indefinitely without trials for crimes. This was more laws in England that prevented their monarchs from being Absolute Monarchs.
James II England’s next issue was that Charles II had no heir So James II took over England, however he was a Catholic king, who gave birth to a Catholic son Parliament saw a potential repeat of Charles I and looked for another option
William and Mary Parliament turned to James II’s oldest daughter and her husband, William and Mary, to come rule England William was a prince from Orange in the Netherlands Since James II ran away, as they took over without war, The Glorious Revolution, occurred and William and Mary agreed to rule under constitutional law
William and Mary Because William and Mary ruled WITH Parliament, and not against, they were NOT and Absolute Monarchy They were instead a Constitutional Monarchy where laws limit a monarchs power. They also signed a document to make legally clear many things that the English Monarchs could not do
English Bill of Rights of 1689 The limits of monarchs’ power was written into the English Bill of Rights, which stated Monarchs could no longer do the following: Suspend Parliament’s laws Levy taxes without a specific grant from Parliament Interfere with freedom of speech in Parliament Give a penalty to a citizen who petitions the king about grievances.
Monarch/Parliament Power At this point, power in Britain was 50-50 with the monarch and Parliament. Thus, the monarchs couldn’t rule without the consent of Parliament and vice versa Therefore, there were points in the early 1700’s where the government was “deadlocked” and could not function at times
Cabinet System Develops During the 1700’s a solution came along by the development of a group of officials called a cabinet. (A major reason is after W&M, a German becomes King of England… He doesn’t even speak English!) A cabinet acted in the monarch’s name, but really represented the major party of parliament. Eventually, the major party’s leader became known as the “Prime Minister” and headed the cabinet Today, the Prime Minister is the chief government executive of Great Britain today.