Presentation on theme: "England’s Reaction to Absolutism and the Glorious Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1England’s Reaction to Absolutism and the Glorious Revolution From Queen Elizabeth I to William of Orange
2Queen Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII Battle w/Parliament over financesProtestantNo heirs (“Virgin Queen)Cousin James inherits the throne
3James“Kings are justly called gods, for that they exercise a manner or resemblance of divine power on earth.”Upset the Puritan controlled Parliament by not ridding the English church of Catholics or making Puritan moral reforms
4Charles I Constantly at war with France & Spain Needed tons of $ to finance warsParliament would not grant him the $ until he signed the Petition of RightCould not imprison subjects w/o due causeCould not tax w/o Parliaments consentNo quarteringNo martial law in times of peace
5Charles I Charles signed, but ignored the document In order to get his funding, Charles establishes fees & finesCharles becomes extremely unpopularCharles still needs more $$$$$Parliament opposes himMobs take to the streetsCharles flees London & gathers army of loyalists
6English Civil WarCavaliers (Royalists) vs. Roundheads (Puritans)Oliver CromwellBecomes general of the RoundheadsDefeats Cavaliers, arrests Charles, and tries him for treasonCharles is found guilty and sentenced to death*first time a king is publicly put on trial and executed
7Oliver Cromwell Abolishes monarchy and establishes House of Lords England is now a commonwealth and has the first European constitutionCromwell decides that he likes having powerTears up constitutionMakes himself military dictatorAbolishes entertainment (theatre)Tolerant to all religions besides Catholicism
8Charles II Cromwell dies in 1658 and the government collapses The English want the monarchy restored after experiencing the military dictator.The son of Charles I, Charles II, is restored to the throne
9The Restoration Sports & theatre restored Women are allowed to act on stage for the first timeThe arts are promoted and flourish
10We’ve got ourselves a “sticky wicket” Who’s to rule?Charles had NO legitimate childrenHe had a brother James, but he was Catholic and since England was mostly anti-Catholic, they were not happy with him ruling.
11James II James becomes king, but flaunts his Catholicism Appoints Catholics to high government positions, despite a law that prohibited Catholics from holding officeParliament protests James actions and ends up dissolving Parliament
12Bye-Bye Dad! Many English feared a succession of Catholic kings James II had a Protestant daughter who married William of Orange, a Protestant prince from the NetherlandsParliament asks them to come to England with an army to overthrow James in the name of Protestantism
13Glorious Revolution The army is never needed James flees to France This bloodless overthrowing of King James II is called the Glorious Revolution
14But not so fast…In order to become king William and Mary had to agree to a Bill of Rights, which limited the power of the monarchy and increased the power of Parliament.