Presentation on theme: "England’s Reaction to Absolutism and the Glorious Revolution From Queen Elizabeth I to William of Orange."— Presentation transcript:
England’s Reaction to Absolutism and the Glorious Revolution From Queen Elizabeth I to William of Orange
Queen Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII Battle w/Parliament over finances Protestant No heirs (“Virgin Queen) Cousin James inherits the throne
James “Kings are justly called gods, for that they exercise a manner or resemblance of divine power on earth.” Upset the Puritan controlled Parliament by not ridding the English church of Catholics or making Puritan moral reforms
Charles I Constantly at war with France & Spain Needed tons of $ to finance wars Parliament would not grant him the $ until he signed the Petition of Right Could not imprison subjects w/o due cause Could not tax w/o Parliaments consent No quartering No martial law in times of peace
Charles I Charles signed, but ignored the document In order to get his funding, Charles establishes fees & fines Charles becomes extremely unpopular Charles still needs more $$$$$ Parliament opposes him Mobs take to the streets Charles flees London & gathers army of loyalists
English Civil War Cavaliers (Royalists) vs. Roundheads (Puritans) Oliver Cromwell Becomes general of the Roundheads Defeats Cavaliers, arrests Charles, and tries him for treason Charles is found guilty and sentenced to death *first time a king is publicly put on trial and executed
Oliver Cromwell Abolishes monarchy and establishes House of Lords England is now a commonwealth and has the first European constitution Cromwell decides that he likes having power Tears up constitution Makes himself military dictator Abolishes entertainment (theatre) Tolerant to all religions besides Catholicism
Charles II Cromwell dies in 1658 and the government collapses The English want the monarchy restored after experiencing the military dictator. The son of Charles I, Charles II, is restored to the throne
The Restoration Sports & theatre restored Women are allowed to act on stage for the first time The arts are promoted and flourish
We’ve got ourselves a “sticky wicket” Who’s to rule? Charles had NO legitimate children He had a brother James, but he was Catholic and since England was mostly anti-Catholic, they were not happy with him ruling.
James II James becomes king, but flaunts his Catholicism Appoints Catholics to high government positions, despite a law that prohibited Catholics from holding office Parliament protests James actions and ends up dissolving Parliament
Bye-Bye Dad! Many English feared a succession of Catholic kings James II had a Protestant daughter who married William of Orange, a Protestant prince from the Netherlands Parliament asks them to come to England with an army to overthrow James in the name of Protestantism
Glorious Revolution The army is never needed James flees to France This bloodless overthrowing of King James II is called the Glorious Revolution
But not so fast… In order to become king William and Mary had to agree to a Bill of Rights, which limited the power of the monarchy and increased the power of Parliament.