Presentation on theme: "English Civil War and Glorious Revolution. James I and the Origins of the English Civil War James was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and, because Elizabeth."— Presentation transcript:
James I and the Origins of the English Civil War James was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and, because Elizabeth had no heir when she died, he became king. James was intelligent and educated, but had little common sense. He believed in the divine right of kings and did not allow Parliament to influence many policies.
James I He also supported the Anglican Church, which made conflict with the Puritans. Puritans were religious dissenters who wished to conform the Church of England. –James saw them as disloyal and warned them to conform or be forced out of the country. They eventually did leave in the 1620’s
James did agree to a new translation of the Bible, but that was his only reform in church doctrine under his rule.
Charles I Upon James’ death in 1625, he was unpopular with the English people. His son Charles I inherited this growing tension. Problems of Charles I –He asked for money to fight the war with Spain and was only given a fraction of what he requested.
Charles I (continued) –Immediately, he disbanded Parliament and tried to raise money from wealthy landowners. If they refused, Charles threw them in jail. Charles also demanded people allow the troops to board up in their homes. These policies were, obviously, controversial and Charles found himself in need of Parliament. He called them back into session in 1628.
Parliament forced Charles to sign The Petition of Rights in order to receive their cooperation in raising money. This document limited the power of the king.
Petition of Rights The king could not imprison without just cause. The king could not collect taxes without Parliament’s permission. The king could not board soldiers in private homes against the will of the owner. –~ a year after signing the Petition of Rights, Charles I once again dissolved Parliament and ruled for 11 years.
Religious Problems With the Puritans Charles was advised by the leadership of the Church of England to persecute the Puritans. Thousands of Puritans moved to the North American Colonies in search of religious freedom. (1630-1643).
In 1642, the problems between Charles I and Parliament came to a head. –Charles gathered an army of nobles and landowners who were called the Cavaliers. –Parliament gathered an army called the “round heads.” The leader of the Parliamentary forces was Oliver Cromwell.
The English Civil War After 4 years of fighting, Charles I and his army surrendered in 1646 and Parliament was given control of the English Government. –Charles I was put on trial and sentenced to death in 1649.
The Lord Protector In 1653, Cromwell established himself as the Lord Protector of England –He ruled 5 years as a dictator –Strict Puritan rules were enforced
The Return of the King In 1660, the Parliament reestablished the Monarchy; ideas of representative government and individual rights survived. This period when the English monarchy was restored is called the Restoration. The monarch who came to power was Charles II. Charles II restored theatre, sporting events, dance and other things the Puritans had banned.
Charles II During the reign of Charles II, parliament passed an important guarantee of freedom, habeas corpus. This law gave every prisoner the right to be brought before a judge (monarch could no longer just throw someone in jail)
The End of the Stuarts In 1685, James II became king after his brother Charles II died. –He wanted to be an absolute King, as well, and claimed that he had the right to ignore all the laws of Parliament. He also flaunted his Catholicism. –Obviously, this angered Parliament. They invited his daughter Mary of Orange and her husband William to take the throne
The End of the Stuarts James II fled to exile in France when William arrived with a Dutch Army in 1688. William and Mary were named joined rulers of England by Parliament. This bloodless transfer of power in England is known as the Glorious Revolution.
Glorious Revolution Before William and Mary were allowed to take the throne, they had to swear an oath to govern England “according to the laws of Parliament and the customs of England.” –Parliament also passed the English Bill of Rights, which was a series of individual rights guaranteed to citizens.
Rise in English Democracy Magna Carta: 1216- limits King’s power Creates “Rule of Law”: No one is above the law, not even king Parliament c. 1280- advises king Prime Minister: head of Parliament and Kings top advisor King cannot tax without consent of nobles Controls taxes- King cannot act alone Right to Jury Trial– based on common law Common law: laws apply to all people Other rights– property, speech, press Democracy: gov’t power based on “consent of the governed”