Presentation on theme: "Following her death, Elizabeth I left England in heavy debt and with no blood heir... Parliament has to cover her money mess and her cousin James I (King."— Presentation transcript:
Following her death, Elizabeth I left England in heavy debt and with no blood heir... Parliament has to cover her money mess and her cousin James I (King of Scotland) inherits the throne.
James I What was James I belief on absolute monarchies? James I believed Kings should be called Gods … definitely believed in absolute rule! What was James I feelings towards parliament? James I felt he was above Parliament and should never have to ask them for money or favors. What was the major issue between James & Parliament? Easy answer: $$$ James I was a spender and Parliament didn’t want to have to pay for his whims. Why did James I offend the Parliament? James refused to kick Catholics out of England, even though he (and the rest of Parliament) was Protestant … he just wouldn’t give Parliament the satisfaction. He had his own version of the Bible??? What’s that all about? King James sponsored a bible that would be written in the English vernacular.
Charles I & Petition of Rights of Man Why did Charles I always need money from the Parliament? He was at war with both France and Spain, and Parliament refused to fund these wars, so he dissolved (fired) them. In order to pay for his wars, what did parliament force Charles I to sign? Petition of the Rights of Man What are the 4 main points of the Petition of Rights? 1. Not imprison people without cause 2. Not raise taxes without Parliament’s consent 3. Not force people to house soldiers in their private homes 4. Not impose martial (soldier) law What was the result of the Petition and how did it affect Charles popularity with the British people? After Charles signed it and got his $$$, he ignored the Petition! This is the epitome of an Absolute Monarchy. -Dissolved Parliament again! -To get money, he raised taxes -Lost popularity
English Civil War & Oliver Cromwell What were the 2 sides called during the English Civil War? 1. Royalist Anglicans (support the King) – Cavaliers 2. Parliament (many were Puritan Anglicans) Who was Oliver Cromwell & why was he significant in the English Civil War? Cromwell was a Parliament leader (Puritan/Anglican); defeated the King What was a result of the Puritan victory during the English Civil War? The Parliament took the King prisoner What happens to King Charles I following the Puritan victory? King Charles I was the first King to EVER be publicly imprisoned, put on trial for treason, and then hung! What changes did Oliver Cromwell bring to England’s government? - Abolished the Monarchy and House of Lords -Established a Republic -Wrote a constitution What was Cromwell’s opinion on religious tolerance? Though a Puritan/Anglican, he allowed religious tolerance in England, except for CATHOLICS! - Even allowed Jews to return to England
Charles II What was the Restoration? After Cromwell’s death, England wanted to return to their traditional ways. Parliament AND the people were sick of Dictator Cromwell. Why was the Restoration important for Charles II? He was the son of Charles I – the King Cromwell had beheaded. He returned England to traditional times – allowed dancing, sports, theater… all things the Puritans had banned. What important laws did Parliament pass under Charles II and why was #3 a momentous part of British history? 1. Gave women some rights in society 2. Took away Puritan rights (many moved to “New World” – USA) 3. Passed “HABEUS CORPUS” – petition that said a King could not imprison someone without reason and a trial. What is the difference between Whigs & Torries? (These 2 groups were the first what?) When Charles II died, he left no heir. His only brother, from a different mother, was James … and he was CATHOLIC! THEREFORE ~ the first political groups in England formed: Whigs opposed James because Whigs were Anglicans Torries supported religious tolerance and were okay with James
James II and the Glorious Revolution How did James II offend the English people, especially parliament? He was Catholic and appointed MANY high government jobs to Catholics. When Parliament protested, he dissolved them! RESULT: People feared a Catholic dynasty Who did the English parliament invite to London and Why? Parliament invited James’ daughter (Mary) and son-in law (William of Orange) to England. Significance? William and Mary were the King and Queen of the (Protestant) Netherlands. Describe the Glorious Revolution? James wouldn’t fight his own daughter, so he left England. William and Mary allied England with the Netherlands (Dutch), creating and ruling one LARGE Protestant state. Called “Glorious” Revolution because it was bloodless.
William & Mary: The Bill of Rights When William & Mary came to the throne what oath did they take? They would use Parliament as a partner when governing. What is a “constitutional monarchy”? Laws limited the monarch’s power (This is the beginning of England’s monarchs just being puppets!) List 4 things stated in the English Bill of Rights that limits the monarch’s power? 1. No suspending Parliament or Parliament’s laws 2. No raising (levying) taxes without Parliament 3. Freedom of Speech guaranteed 4. People were free to file petition of grievances against the King *Inspires first 10 Amendments (Bill of Rights) in the USA After 1689, who officially shares power in the English government? Monarchy and Parliament would share power 50/50 (begin precedence of checks and balances) What is a “cabinet”? Because there were only 2 groups that “checked and balanced” each other, things could come to a standstill – need a tie breaker. Cabinet was developed to act as advisors to King and Parliament. Head of the Cabinet was called PRIME MINISTER