Presentation on theme: "Medieval Conflicts of Church and States. I. Early Middle Ages -Constantine called Council of Nicaea (precedent used later by political rulers for Caesaropapism,"— Presentation transcript:
I. Early Middle Ages -Constantine called Council of Nicaea (precedent used later by political rulers for Caesaropapism, Ruler above Church) -After Gregory the Great (d. 604) papacy a secular as well as religious leader in area near Rome -Shift from seeking aid from Eastern Emperor to seeking military aid from local leaders -Pepin, King of Franks and his son Charlemagne -800 Charlemagne in Rome crowned Emperor by Pope (Papacy interprets as Pope above Emperor)
II. Church a unity of secular and spiritual. Religion dominates individual lives Secular Clergy---bishops, archbishops, pope. -Wield power, collect taxes, build churches. Church keep baptism records, death records, houses travelers, cares for ill, does charity, as well as providing sacraments for salvation. Regular Clergy- monks continued…
Educational leadership. Creates educational institutions— cathedral school, then universities. 3 graduate disciplines: Theology, Medicine, Canon Law. Canon law for church in 1300 is more advanced than individual state laws. States need to hire churchmen to have literate civil servants. Even courtly love written down by churchman, like Art of Courtly Love, by Andreas Capellanus. (Church a unity of Secular and Spiritual) Pope Urban II in 1095 calls for Crusade to free Holy Land from Muslim Turks. Rulers send knights. Hospitallers and Templars fight as military-monastic orders (precedent for Jesuits against Protestants in 16 th century) and Pope Julius II as a pope leading an army (in film on Michelangelo)
III. Growth of feudal states leads to conflicts between Rulers and Pope. Conflict on selection, appointment and investiture of bishops. 9 th -10 th c. by secular rulers. 11 th c. Papacy opposes lay investiture. A. Holy Roman Empire Hildebrand (Pope Gregory VII) vs. Emperor Henry IV in German lands -Henry’s council of bishops declare indep. from Pope. -Pope excommunicates Henry. -1077 Henry penitent barefoot 3 days in Canossa, Tuscany -Pope grants Henry absolution -Pope Calixtus II signs Concordat of Worms with Emp. Henry V -Emperor renounce role in investiture with ring and staff (spiritual sword) -Emperor present at clergy elections, and right to invest clergy with secular responsibilities. (secular sword)
B. England -King Henry II vs. Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas à Becket -Becket rose to post through service to the King, changed to support church side after appointed. -Henry wants churchmen tried in state courts, punished by secular authorities. -Thomas defends clerical immunity. Pope back Thomas -1170 Henry’s men kill Becket in Cathedral of Canterbury
C. France Pope Innocent III (d. 1216) defends papal supremacy. Excommunicated King John of England Pope Boniface VIII 1302 declared Unam Sanctam, supremacy of church over secular rulers. Philip IV the Fair of France ordered men to seize Pope. Boniface dies soon in 1303, and Philip keeps church in Avignon. 1309-1377 “Babylonian Captivity” no pope in Rome, Papal palace in Avignon, center for humanist scholarship, collects ancient manuscripts 1378-1417 Schism. French puppet popes continue in Avignon, while another set of popes in Rome.
D. Popes build again control of papal states while contending with power of church councils. 1417 Martin V declared pope by Council of Constance. Shows growth of power of church councils. Now popes need to battle with representative movement within church 1431 Council of Basil 1437 Council of Florence (attempts reconciliation with Greek Orthodox Church), commemorated in Gozzoli’s fresco in Medici chapel.