Presentation on theme: "+ Renaissance and Reformation 1300-1650. + What is going on in Europe? Life was good: 300-400 years of good times Strong church, strong kings, growing."— Presentation transcript:
+ What is going on in Europe? Life was good: 300-400 years of good times Strong church, strong kings, growing trade, growing cities, no natural catastrophes, weather nice, growing industries, population growth After 1300 things began to change… Environment changes, increasing warfare, famine, the Black Death, changes in power, and the Great Schism
+ Environmental Changes: The Little Ice Age What happened during the “Little Ice Age”? Colder, wetter Rain kills seedlings Population is too big 1315-1317 bad harvest years. They were already having trouble feeding the continent, this made it even worse.
+ Increasing Warfare: Change in relationships: People were looking towards kings as opposed to local lords for allegiance They started to develop a national identity This gave kings sovereignty – or authority
+ Hundred Years’ War Who: France vs. England When: 1337-1453 Why: Fighting over land King Edward III (England) tried to take the French throne How: For the first half, it looked like England would win French became inspired by Joan of Arc and pushed the English back
+ Hundred Years’ War Cont. (1337-1453) Joan of Arc: Inspired French troops after claiming she had a vision from God She was captured by the English and burned at the stake for heresy What effect do you think this had on French troops? 1453—drove the English back to Calais Historical Significance: This loss delegitimized the English monarchy What does that mean?
+ War of the Roses (1455-1485) Also called the “Cousins War” When: 1455-1485 Who: Lancaster vs. York Branches of the House of Plantagenet Henry Tudor won (York) What: Brutal civil war Why: After losing to the French, the English lost legitimacy… someone had to prove that they should be king
+ War of the Roses (1455-1485) Historical Significance: Henry Tudor limited the power of the nobility Increased importance of the merchant class Two most well known monarchs in English history King Henry VIII Queen Elizabeth I
+ King Henry VII -6 Wives: Divorced, beheaded, died; divorced, beheaded, survived -Established the Church of England (Anglican Church) -Broke ties with the Pope and Rome (Catholic Church) -Before all of this he was named “Defender of the Faith” -Extremely concerned with providing his family with a male heir… a lot of this had to do with the fact that his family was not that well established on the throne -First wife was first married to his brother… but he died before their marriage was consummated– Henry VIII contested this when he asked for a divorce from Catherine of Aragon
+ Queen Elizabeth I -Daughter of Anne Bolyen… Henry VIII’s second wife -Last of the Tudor line, her throne was inherited by her nephew James Stewart -”Elizabethan Age” -patron of the arts, literature, expansion, and extremely proud -she never married although it is claimed that she had affairs with Thomas Seymour (brother to Jane Seymour, her father’s third wife) and Lord Robert Dudley whom she had a close friendship with for over 30 years until his death’ -She was rivals with her cousin Mary Queen of Scots whom she later had imprisoned and executed -Was an exceptional leader during a time of extreme political and religious unrest
+ Famine There’s Not Enough Food! Population is TOO BIG!! No fertilizers Farming all of the land Land loses fertility (no crop cycling )
+ The “Black Death” Bubonic Plague Thought to be caused by sin, evil vapors (miasma) 1/3 of Europeans die 1347-1351 Outbreaks would occur for the next 500 years
+ Changes in Power England and France are the first two to develop powerful monarchies Holy Roman Empire losing power Giving control to German princes in exchange for military support 1438—Habsburg family creates the most powerful dynasty in Europe
+ Great Schism The authority of the church falls through the 1300s What does that mean? Changes French King (Philip VI) decides to tax the clergy (who?) Clement V selected as pope… he’s an advisor to the French King (Philip VI) Papacy moved from Rome to Avignon in 1309 for 70 years Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome Then things get crazy!!
+ The Great Schism Both France and Italy select popes Effects: Increased criticism of the church (they didn’t find a solution to the Black Plague, they can’t decide which Pope is the “right” one) New ideas began to emerge about religion By mid-1400s church lost a lot of political power People began to associate more with their country than with their religion