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Century of Turmoil: Division in the Church, the Hundred Years’ War & the Plague.

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Presentation on theme: "Century of Turmoil: Division in the Church, the Hundred Years’ War & the Plague."— Presentation transcript:

1 Century of Turmoil: Division in the Church, the Hundred Years’ War & the Plague

2 A Church Divided 1300 – conflict between Pope Boniface VII & King Philip IV 1305 – Clement V as new pope Popes moved from Rome to Avignon, France – weakens the Church

3 Great Schism College of Cardinals elects Pope Urban VI but later regret decision Cardinals then elect Clement VII as pope Two popes: Clement VII in Avignon, Urban VI in Rome Council of Pisa  3 popes!

4 Council of Constance 1414 – Council of Constance attempted to end Great Schism by choosing single pope Holy Roman Emperor & Council forced all popes to resign 1417 – Council chose new pope Martin V

5 Scholars Challenge Church Authority John Wycliffe – challenged the Church –Church was too worldly & wealthy –Bible, not pope, was final authority Council of Constance declared him a heretic, ordered his books burned, body exhumed, burned, & ashes cast into the river Jan Hus – excommunicated, burned @ stake

6 Bubonic Plague Infectious disease caused by bacteria Began in Asia – spread through trade routes Known as the Black Death – purplish or blackish spots on skin

7 Bubonic Plague Flea bites an infected rat  bacteria in flea’s stomach forms “plug” or blockage  flea becomes very hungry & aggressive Flea attempts to feed on a human, but the plugged stomach keeps it from keeping down the blood – vomits the blood back into the body w/plague bacteria mixed in Human is now infected Flea will eventually starve to death

8 Bubonic Plague Symptoms - Set in 3-7 days after infection - Chills, fever, diarrhea, headache, swelling of lymph nodes (known as bubo) - If left untreated, mortality rate is about 60%

9 The “Black Death”  plague outbreak, began in 1347 Pandemic – appeared in other parts of the world, not just Europe 1 st broken out in central Asia 1/2 to 2/3 of Europe’s population died within Disease spread easily in crowded, dirty towns People afraid to leave their homes


11 The “Black Death” People were afraid to handle the dead or be around the sick – bodies piled up in the streets In Paris, 800 people died per day Responses – –Doctors wore fanciful costumes to “scare away the evil spirits” –People carried flowers & herbs to ward off disease –Sound was the answer  rang church bells or fired cannons

12 “Ring Around the Rosie” Ring  rose-colored, puss-filled sores would develop rings Pocket full of posies  carry flowers to keep away the plague Ashes Ashes  Burn the bodies We all fall down  plague wiped out 20-35% of the population in Eurasia

13 Religious Devotion Plague seen as punishment by God for the people’s sinfulness Some people became flagellants  traveled to towns singing hymns & chants while flagellating (whipping) themselves, in a sign of physical penance Ironically, they ended up spreading the disease even more….

14 Effects of the Plague Less population meant better economic conditions for survivors Breakdown of feudalism Laborers could start demanding better wages & more freedom Weakening of the Church Fall of “Middle Age” society

15 Hundred Years’ War French King Charles IV died w/o heir English King Edward III (Charles’ nephew) claimed right to throne French appointed Philip IV (Charles’ cousin) as King of France Victory passed back & forth English were driven out of France in 1453

16 Longbow Changes Warfare English introduced longbow – Battle of Crécy in 1346 Cheap, easy to carry, could penetrate armor Spelled doom for knights & chivalric warfare

17 Joan of Arc In 1429, French peasant –Divine revelations that she should help France Joan led French army into battle –Several victoriers England’s allies captured Joan – condemned as witch & burned at the stake Joan of Arc is symbol of French resistance

18 Impact of Hundred Years’ War Nationalism emerged in France & England Power & prestige of French monarch increased Some consider it to be the end of the Middle Ages Charles VII crowned French king

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