2How Do We Know?Remember, history is what is remembered and written down, along with the bias of the writer.Herodotus - primary source“Father of History”Ionian GreekEye-witness & interviewed Eye-witnessesWrote The Persian Wars
3How Do We Know?“These are the inquiries (the Greek word is ‘histories’) of Herodotus of Halikarnassos, which he sets down so that he can preserve the memory of what these men have done, and ensure that the wondrous achievements of the Greeks and barbarians (the Persians) do not lose their deserved fame, and also to record why we went to war with each other.” Herodotus
4Persian Empire Expands Remember the Persians?Conquered the Babylonians…“Freed” the Jews and allowed them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple to YahwehCyrus the Great ---> Jews called him the “Messiah” or God’s “anointed one”Empire ---> largest to date under Darius, from Egypt, Asia Minor to IndiaSatraps & Satrapies
6Persian War - the Greeks vs. the Persians People to know…GREEKS PERSIANS-Leonidas -Cyrus the Great-Pericles -Darius*-Themistocles -Xerxes*Key Battles to Know … (there’s 4)B. of MarathonB. of ThermopylaeB. of SalamisB. of Plataea
7The Persian War SO WHAT? Who cares? What’s at stake? JUST THE FUTURE OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION!
37Aftermath of the Persian War Athenian Imperialistic expansioncultural, economic & military power > navyAthens & “allies” -->Delian League“Golden Age” for Athens ----> “Age of Pericles”Sparta and allies -----> Peloponnesian LeagueOutbreak of warExpected to be short
38Peloponnesian WarConflicts between the two power’s allies - ultimate involvement of Sparta & AthensWar’s escalation- no definitive battle- plague- Alcibiades- truce- Sicily- Persians- Defeat & Aftermath