Presentation on theme: "Persian and Peloponnesian Wars SOL WHI.5d. Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture? Why was the Peloponnesian War important."— Presentation transcript:
Persian and Peloponnesian Wars SOL WHI.5d
Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture? Why was the Peloponnesian War important to the spread of Greek culture.
The Persian Empire was an autocratic empire ruled by a hereditary king. In 490 B.C.E. the Persian Empire reached from India to Macedonia, a region just north of Greece. The Persians exacted taxes and tribute from conquered people but usually let them rule themselves and practice their native religions.
The first Persian Greek War started because Athens supported Greek cities in modern day Turkey when they revolted against the Persians. The revolt was called the Ionian Revolt. The Ionian Revolt lasted from B.C.E. when the Greek cities surrendered to Persia.
The ruler of Persia, Darius, decided to punish the Greek cities in Greece because they had supported the Ionians. The army of Darius invaded Greece by sea in 490 B.C.E. and landed 25 miles from Athens at the Plain of Marathon. Run of Pheidippides
The Greeks were heavily outnumbered but they attacked the Persian force and won. The Greeks lost less then 200 men. The Persians lost over 6,000 men. The average Greek soldier, called a hoplite, was well trained and wore heavy armor and carried a large shield.
Before Darius could send another army against Greece he died. His son, Xerxes, attacked Greece again in 480 B.C.E. Xerxes invaded Greece by land and sea with a massive army and fleet.
The Oracle at Delphi said that Greece would be safe behind a “wooden wall” Themistocles’s interpretation: Trireme Xerxes army was blocked at a narrow pass called Thermopylae by 300 Spartan soldiers. All of the Spartans died but they delayed the Persian army.
The Persians burned Athens but were later defeated at sea and on the land. The sea battle was at Salamis. The land battle at Plataea in 479 B.C.E.
1. Greeks remained independent and continued to develop unique political institutions that influenced western civilization. 2. Athens and Sparta united to defeat Persians and continued to liberate Greek city states in the Aegean and Ionia from Persian rule.
At the end of the second Persian War the Greeks controlled the Aegean. Athens formed the Delian League. A group of Greek city states that contributed money or ships to fight the Persians. The Delian League became the Athenian Empire.
Time to progress and growth Pericles led the Athenians through the Golden Age Why do you think Athens was considered the city- state with “the Golden Age” What did they just accomplish that gave them power?
Expanded Democracy Most adult males had an equal voice The Parthenon was built during this time Temple in Athens for the goddess Athena One of the greatest architectural achievements of Ancient Greece Still standing (in ruins) today!
In 431 B.C.E. the Peloponnesian War started between Athens and Sparta. The war lasted until 404 B.C.E. with the surrender of Athens. The war weakened both Sparta and Athens and led to the decline of the Greek city states.
Competition between Sparta and Athens caused the Peloponnesian War. Athens controlled the Delian League and Sparta controlled the Peloponnesian League. Both cities feared the power of the other and this fear and distrust was a primary cause of the war.
SpartaAthens 1.Land power 2.Oligarchy 3.Economy based on agriculture 4.Little money 1.Naval power 2.Democracy 3.Economy based on agriculture and trade 4.Reserves of gold and silver
Alcibiades Tried to take over the island of Sicily Arrested for “defacing statues” Angry at the Athenians Helped the Spartans
The Peloponnesian War was the end of the golden age of Athens. Slowed down cultural advance Weakened political power Marks the fall of Athens all together Begins the fall of Greece (Rome takes over in 146BC) Many Athenians died in a plague during the first few years of the war including Pericles, the man who had been instrumental in building the Parthenon and expanding Athenian power.