Presentation on theme: "Persian and Peloponnesian Wars SOL WHI.5d"— Presentation transcript:
1Persian and Peloponnesian Wars SOL WHI.5d Ancient GreecePersian and Peloponnesian WarsSOL WHI.5d
2Essential QuestionsWhy were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture?Why was the Peloponnesian War important to the spread of Greek culture.
3Persian EmpireThe Persian Empire was an autocratic empire ruled by a hereditary king.In 490 B.C.E. the Persian Empire reached from India to Macedonia, a region just north of Greece.The Persians exacted taxes and tribute from conquered people but usually let them rule themselves and practice their native religions.
5Ionian RevoltThe first Persian Greek War started because Athens supported Greek cities in modern day Turkey when they revolted against the Persians. The revolt was called the Ionian Revolt.The Ionian Revolt lasted from B.C.E. when the Greek cities surrendered to Persia.
6Greek Persian WarThe ruler of Persia, Darius, decided to punish the Greek cities in Greece because they had supported the Ionians.The army of Darius invaded Greece by sea in 490 B.C.E. and landed 25 miles from Athens at the Plain of Marathon.Run of Pheidippides
8Battle of MarathonThe Greeks were heavily outnumbered but they attacked the Persian force and won.The Greeks lost less then 200 men. The Persians lost over 6,000 men.The average Greek soldier, called a hoplite, was well trained and wore heavy armor and carried a large shield.
12Greek Persian WarBefore Darius could send another army against Greece he died. His son, Xerxes, attacked Greece again in 480 B.C.E.Xerxes invaded Greece by land and sea with a massive army and fleet.
14Greek Persian WarThe Oracle at Delphi said that Greece would be safe behind a “wooden wall”Themistocles’s interpretation: TriremeXerxes army was blocked at a narrow pass called Thermopylae by 300 Spartan soldiers.All of the Spartans died but they delayed the Persian army.
17Greek Persian WarThe Persians burned Athens but were later defeated at sea and on the land.The sea battle was at Salamis. The land battle at Plataea in 479 B.C.E.
18Outcome of Persian Wars Greeks remained independent and continued to develop unique political institutions that influenced western civilization.Athens and Sparta united to defeat Persians and continued to liberate Greek city states in the Aegean and Ionia from Persian rule.
19Outcome of Persian Wars At the end of the second Persian War the Greeks controlled the Aegean.Athens formed the Delian League. A group of Greek city states that contributed money or ships to fight the Persians.The Delian League became the Athenian Empire.
20Greek Golden Age Time to progress and growth Pericles led the Athenians through the Golden AgeWhy do you think Athens was considered the city- state with “the Golden Age”What did they just accomplish that gave them power?
21Pericles Expanded Democracy The Parthenon was built during this time Most adult males had an equal voiceThe Parthenon was built during this timeTemple in Athens for the goddess AthenaOne of the greatest architectural achievements of Ancient GreeceStill standing (in ruins) today!
25Peloponnesian WarIn 431 B.C.E. the Peloponnesian War started between Athens and Sparta.The war lasted until 404 B.C.E. with the surrender of Athens.The war weakened both Sparta and Athens and led to the decline of the Greek city states.
26Peloponnesian WarCompetition between Sparta and Athens caused the Peloponnesian War.Athens controlled the Delian League and Sparta controlled the Peloponnesian League.Both cities feared the power of the other and this fear and distrust was a primary cause of the war.
32Peloponnesian War Effects The Peloponnesian War was the end of the golden age of Athens.Slowed down cultural advanceWeakened political powerMarks the fall of Athens all togetherBegins the fall of Greece (Rome takes over in 146BC)Many Athenians died in a plague during the first few years of the war including Pericles, the man who had been instrumental in building the Parthenon and expanding Athenian power.