Presentation on theme: "Victory & Defeat in the Greek World Page 110. “Earth and Water” In 492 B.C. King Darius I of Persia demanded “earth and water” from the Greek city-states."— Presentation transcript:
“Earth and Water” In 492 B.C. King Darius I of Persia demanded “earth and water” from the Greek city-states Athens and Sparta REFUSED! Persians conquered the city-states of Ionia In 499 B.C. the Ionian Greeks revolted against Persia --- Athens sent ships to Ionia to help them! King Darius I was furious at Athens...
The Persian Wars 490 B.C.E. – 479 B.C.E. Greek City-States vs. Persians (Ionia, Athens, etc.)
Reasons for War Where is Greece? Where is Ionia?
Highlights of Persian Wars Battle of Marathon (490 B.C) Persians crossed the Aegean Sea and attacked the Athenians on a plain called Marathon outside of Athens Greeks outnumbered, but WON! Sent Pheidippides their fastest runner to carry home the news of victory! He sprinted 26.2 miles to Athens — “Rejoice, we conquer,” he gasped and then died! In honor of Pheidippides’ run, marathon runners still run 26.2 miles!
The Athenians used clever war tactics to win the Battle of Marathon including the use of hoplites manning phalanxes.
Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C) King Darius I died, but his son Xerxes took up the fight against Greece 300 Spartans and allies v.s 150,000 to a 1 million Persians Spartans held their ground for 2 days guarding the narrow mountain pass of Thermopylae but were defeated by the Persians Persians marched south and burned down Athens but the city was empty Statue of Spartan King Leonidas at Thermopylae
Battle of Salamis 480 B.C. Turning point in Persian War Greeks defeated Persians by sea under the guidance of General Themistocles Athenian warships drove into Persian boats with underwater battering rams After win at Salamis, the Greeks went on to defeat the Persians on land—End of War!
Effects of Persian Wars Athens emerged as most powerful and prosperous city-state in Greece Athens organized the Delian League = alliances with other city-states Athens used its influence over other city- states to build an Athenian Empire! Many other Greek city-states resented Athens and split from the Delian League Sparta created the Peloponnesian League Athenians great at sea, Sparta great on land
Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) Delian League v. Peloponnesian League Democracy (Athens) v. Oligarchy (Sparta) Greeks vs. Greeks fighting for 27 years Sparta feared Athenian power
Highlights of War Sparta attacked Athens Sparta was land locked, so Athenian navy was not effective In 404 B.C. with the help of the Persian navy (longtime enemy), Spartans captured Athens
Effects of Peloponnesian War Ended Athenian domination of the Greek world More in fighting occurred amongst Greek city-states, weakening them Weakened Greek city states were easier to conquer later on by the Macedonians and Alexander the Great!