5 Battle of Marathon Ionian revolt and other battles 490 BC - Darius I “The Great” sent about 25,000 men to plains of MarathonDarius preceded by Cyrus the Great and Cambyses10,000 Athenians and Plataeans under Callinachus and MiltiadesFirst victory for Greeks
6 Battle at Thermopylae, 480 BC Xerxes – King of Persia, son of Darius I70,000 Persians bridged the Hellespont10,000 “Immortals”Themistocles led navy at AthensAthens and Sparta form allianceDecide to defend at ThermopylaeLeonidas I and 300 Spartans and 1000 BoetiansNaval battle at Artemesium fought at same timeAllies lost both battles
8 Battle of Salamis, also 480 BC Athens evacuated after ThermopylaeAthens taken and burnedNavy waiting around island SalamisThemistocles’ trickConfined waters around SalamisEgyptians, Phoenecians, Ionian Greeks with Persians40 Greek ships lost, 200 Persian ships lostQueen Artemisia of Halicarnassus "My men have become women, and my women men."
9 Battle of Plataea, 479 BCXerxes I had left a land army under MardoniusSpartans and Athenians rode upMet at isthmus of CorinthMardonius fledOther regions rebelled from Persia
10 The Delian League, 478 BCIonian city-states joined for mutual protectionTreasuary on island of Delos, Aristides leads AthensAthens in charge due to naval supremacyPericles leads Athens during Golden AgeParthenon built on AcropolisLong Walls builtSparta captures Athens in 404 BC
11 Peloponnesian Wars Thucydides Begins in 431 BC between Athens and Sparta429 BC – Pericles dies of plagueThree stage warMost of Delian League sided with Sparta404 BC – Sparta wins war with defeat of Athenian navy at Aegospotami by Lysander with help from PersiaLysander installs 30 rulers at Athens, later known as the “30 Tyrants”
12 The Thirty Tyrants, 404 BCSpartan hegemony – indirect imperial dominanceLong Walls destroyedAthenian oligarchy (pro-Spartan) appointed by Sparta led by CritiasOnly lasted 13 monthsLeading democrats exiledCouncil of 500 were the judiciaryOnly 3000 Athenian had citizenshipMany sentenced to hemlock including Socrates
13 End of Thirty Tyrants Other city-states helped exiled democrats Retook Piraeus by forceSparta did not come to helpDemocracy restored in 403 BCBattle of Leuctra 371 BC – Thebans over SpartansMacedoniaPhilip II