4Cyrus the Great – (mid 6th c. BCE) Short clip about Cyrus the Great from Engineering an Empire (2:54 minutes)
5Cyrus the Great – (mid 6th c. BCE) Created the 1st “largest” empireTolerant of all religionssmart way to keep “control”Champion of safe tradeFreed the Jews from BabylonHis reign lasted about 30 years (died at 46)His sons could not retain control7 years after his death – Darius takes control
6Persian Empire - Geography Core located in present-day IRANCapital City at PersepolisExtended from Asia Minor to North Africa (Egypt) across the Middle East to the Indus Valley
7Persian Empire - Religion Zoroaster created a MONOTHEISTIC religion in which people determine their fate by the choices they makeAHURA MAZDA was the only godConcept of heaven & hell
8Persian Empire - Achievements Royal Road connected all parts of the empireUsed to improve tradeUsed for postal systemUsed to deploy military (if needed)Magnificent Capital Palaces
10Persian Empire - POLITICAL Monarchy – but local rulers allowed to retain positions of power.Empire divided into provinces / states called SATRAPIES and representatives of Cyrus (satraps) would “advise” the local leaders and collect taxes.Relatively peaceful
11Persian Empire - Economy Extensive trade network used Royal Road with “safe” inns (caravanserai)Standardized CoinsStandard weights & measuresEffective system of taxesCompare to peace on the Silk Road during the time of the Mongols
12Persian Empire - Social Because of Religious & Social Tolerance Persian Empire remembered as 1st empire concerned with “human rights”.Cyrus the Great “released” Jews from captivity when he conquered Babylon.
13Persian WarsThe Greeks and especially the Athenians humiliated the Persians.This led to the rise of the Greek Classical Civilization and the eventual end of the Persian Civilization
14Persian Wars – Part 1 490 BCE - Marathon The power of Persia was not questioned.Darius sent army to Greece to “scold” them for helping inhabitants of a Greek colony that had been absorbed into Persian Empire and tried to revolt. (Ionian War)Army of Darius defeated by Athenians at Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE.26 miles / NIKE / Drop Dead
16Persian Wars – Part 2 480 BCE – Thermopylae & Salamis Massive army sent to seek revenge (at least 200,000 experienced soldiers)Bridge of ships built across the Dardanelles (about 1 mile)Army “delayed” by King Leonidas and 300 Spartans at Thermopylae. Athens burned.Navy defeated by Athenians at sea battle of Salamis (off coast of Athens)
18Persian Wars – Part 3 Athens Enters its Golden AGE As a result of defeating the Persians Athens takes the position of leadership in Greece.That’s the link to Persia – now let’s go back and talk about Greece.
19Persian Empire Terms/Names to Remember Cyrus the GreatDariusXerxesZoroasterPersepolissatraps / satrapiesRoyal Road