Presentation on theme: "Athens and Sparta. Athens vs. Sparta Population : 140,000 Government : – Democracy 10 elected officials Council of 500 Assembly Social Structure : –"— Presentation transcript:
Athens and Sparta
Athens vs. Sparta Population : 140,000 Government : – Democracy 10 elected officials Council of 500 Assembly Social Structure : – Freemen, Aliens, Slaves Women : – Property, kept at home Education : – Only boys, ages 5-14/18 Values : – Participation in gov. &civic responsibility Military : Strong Navy Population : 8,000 Government : – Oligarchy 2 Kings 5 Ephors 28 Council/Senate Men Assembly Social Structure : – Spartans, Neighbors, Helots (slaves) Women : – Almost equal to men, role to have healthy children Education : – Both boys and girls at age 7 Values : – Military; “Obey & Endure” Military : Strong Army
Persian Wars 500 – 448 BCE the greatest understandable event in human memory; distinguished the Greek from the "barbarian".
The Persian Empire Cyrus the Great
Darius I: “Remember the Athenians…”
Battle of Marathon And the Winner is…Athens!
Xerxes: “I’ll be Back!”
To Awe his Opponents: The Pontoon Bridge and Canal through Mt. Athos
The Greek Hoplite Army
Greek vs. Persian
Prophecies of Delphi Athens –“Wooden Walls” Sparta –“Death of a king”
Battle of Thermopylae and the winner is…Persia!
Burn Athens burn!
Battle of Salamis And the winner is…the Greeks!
Persian War Aftermath: Athens and Sparta- “I ain’t your BFF!” Delian League vs. Peloponnesian League
Meanwhile… Athens achieved its “Golden/Classical Age”
Peloponnesian Wars “A war to end all wars…”
The 2 Sides: Athens vs. Sparta
Fast Facts… Source of information - Thucydides Greeks called “the war b/w Peloponnesians and Athenians” Lasted 27 years Fighting ranged across Greek world At wars end, “Golden Age” of Greece over
Why did the Peloponnesian war start? According to Thucydides… – “Spartan fear of the growth of Athenian Power” Big Idea: War of Opposing Ideologies “This day will be the beginning of great evils for the Greeks.”
The War is On! Sparta attacks Athens
Stage 1: The Age of Pericles War strategy: – Caution Major Event: – Athens overrun with plague End of Stage 1: – Death of Pericles
Stage 2: Age of Cleon War strategy: – Aggressive Major Events: – Colonization – Mytilene End of Stage 2: – Death of Cleon – Peace of Nicias
Stage 3: Age of Alcibiades War strategy: – Aggressive Major Events: – Ended Peace of Nicias – Punishment of Melos – Invasion of Sicily End of Stage 3 and the War: – Spartans launched surprise attack on Athenian fleet; starved Athens into submission
Thucydides “For never had so many cities been captured and destroyed, whether by the barbarians or by the Greeks who were fighting each other…Never had so many men been exiled or slaughtered, whether in the war or because of civil conflicts.”
The Macedonians Destroyer of Greek Independence OR Saviors of Greek Culture?
Macedonia North of Mt. Olympus Largest & wealthiest Greek city-state Warlike people w/ loyalty to throne “Lovers of things Greek” – Considered Barbarians by Greeks
Phillip II Father Alex. Great United Macedonia lands Created new and improved phalanx Conquered Greek peninsula; dreamed of defeating Persians Big Idea: Alex. Great nobody, w/o daddy
Alexander the Great Arguably one of the greatest military generals of all time Created vast Empire – Ionian Sea to Himalaya Mts. Responsible for preservation and diffusion of Hellenism