3 Athens vs. Sparta Population: 140,000 Government: Democracy 10 elected officialsCouncil of 500AssemblySocial Structure:Freemen, Aliens, SlavesWomen:Property, kept at homeEducation:Only boys, ages 5-14/18Values:Participation in gov. &civic responsibilityMilitary: Strong NavyPopulation: 8,000Government:Oligarchy2 Kings5 Ephors28 Council/Senate MenAssemblySocial Structure:Spartans, Neighbors, Helots (slaves)Women:Almost equal to men, role to have healthy childrenEducation:Both boys and girls at age 7Values:Military; “Obey & Endure”Military: Strong Army
4 Persian Wars 500 – 448 BCEthe greatest understandable event in human memory; distinguished the Greek from the "barbarian" .
20 Fast Facts… Source of information - Thucydides Greeks called “the war b/w Peloponnesians and Athenians”Lasted 27 yearsFighting ranged across Greek worldAt wars end, “Golden Age” of Greece over
21 Why did the Peloponnesian war start? According to Thucydides…“Spartan fear of the growth of Athenian Power”Big Idea: War of Opposing Ideologies“This day will be the beginning of great evils for the Greeks.”
23 Stage 1: The Age of Pericles War strategy:CautionMajor Event:Athens overrun with plagueEnd of Stage 1:Death of Pericles
24 Stage 2: Age of Cleon War strategy: Major Events: End of Stage 2: AggressiveMajor Events:ColonizationMytileneEnd of Stage 2:Death of CleonPeace of Nicias
25 Stage 3: Age of Alcibiades War strategy:AggressiveMajor Events:Ended Peace of NiciasPunishment of MelosInvasion of SicilyEnd of Stage 3 and the War:Spartans launched surprise attack on Athenian fleet; starved Athens into submission
26 Thucydides“For never had so many cities been captured and destroyed, whether by the barbarians or by the Greeks who were fighting each other…Never had so many men been exiled or slaughtered, whether in the war or because of civil conflicts.”
27 Destroyer of Greek Independence OR Saviors of Greek Culture? The MacedoniansDestroyer of Greek Independence OR Saviors of Greek Culture?
28 Macedonia North of Mt. Olympus Largest & wealthiest Greek city-state Warlike people w/ loyalty to throne“Lovers of things Greek”Considered Barbarians by Greeks
29 Phillip II Father Alex. Great United Macedonia lands Created new and improved phalanxConquered Greek peninsula; dreamed of defeating PersiansBig Idea: Alex. Great nobody, w/o daddy
30 Alexander the GreatArguably one of the greatest military generals of all timeCreated vast EmpireIonian Sea to Himalaya Mts.Responsible for preservation and diffusion of Hellenism