Presentation on theme: "7 th Grade World History. Cavalry – a unit of soldiers who ride horses. The Persian empire was known for their use of cavalry, helping to make them."— Presentation transcript:
7 th Grade World History
Cavalry – a unit of soldiers who ride horses. The Persian empire was known for their use of cavalry, helping to make them so victorious in battle Hellenistic – Greek-like - when a cultural idea is heavily influenced by Greek ideas (Example – cities of Alexandria created by Alexander.) Alliance – agreement to work together – as in the Persian Wars Parthenon – Great temple in Athens dedicated to the goddess Athena. Commissioned by Pericles after the Persian Wars.
Phalanx – A square fighting formation – commonly used by Alexander & Sparta Satraps – Governors in the Persian empire that ruled provinces for the king Helots – Slaves in Sparta – made up majority of population & heavily relied upon Parthenon – Great temple in Athens dedicated to the goddess Athena. Commissioned by Pericles after the Persian Wars.
Cyrus the Great – Rebelled against the Medes to create the Persian Empire. Known for letting others keep their customs to help prevent rebellions Darius I – Leader of the Persians when Greek mainland city-states sent help to the Ionian city-states. Leader during the Battle of Marathon
Xerxes I – the son of Darius. Was the leader of the Persian Wars during the battles of Thermopylae, Salamis & Plataea. Set up his golden throne to watch the Battle of Salamis – which he lost, forcing him to retreat to Persia Philip of Macedonia – Father of Alexander the Great. Conquered the Greek city-states. Alexander the Great – Macedonian King – came to power after his father was murdered. Helped to create the largest empire in the world at that point. Never lost a battle. Died at age 32 from malaria.
Aristotle –Student of Plato- Best known for teaching Alexander the Great – art of thinking/reason – which helped prepare for battle Plato – Student of Socrates – best known for creating a school for scientists & philosophers to discuss ideas 3mIly thIz is KiLlinG u Socrates – Athenian Philosopher who tAUGHT his students to question everything – including the gods. Was then sentenced to death for doing so. Euclid – Studied Geometry – many geometry rules used today were crEated by him-n0
Battle of Marathon – 490 BCE Persians want revenge for city-states helping the rebelling Ionian Greeks. Athens asks Sparta for help – they sAiD no due to a religious festival Athens out numbered 2 to 1 Due to better weapons & plans – Athens wins! Outcome – Persians will want revenge
Battle of Thermopylae – Persians are seeking revenge for Battle of Marathon Led by Xerxes – brings at least 250,000 men This is led by the Spartans – hold them off at the narrow pass – until a traitor tells them away around the mountains Spartans fight to their death Persians win and march on to Athens & burn it down Greeks are motivated to fight back
Battle of Salamis – Athenians had earlier built up their Navy Athenian Themistocles wants to fight in the narrow straights Tricks Xerxes into battle Xerxes sets up gold throne to watch Little Athenian ships destroy the large Persian ships because the large ships can’t manuver Win for Greece! Xerxes must return to Persia
Battle of Plataea Fought by a united Greek front and left over Persians Greece Wins! This ends the Persian Wars Defeat humiliating for Persians, but not a major loss Greeks save their homeland!
1. The Medes 2. He is upset because the mainland Greeks helped out the revolting Ionian Greeks. 3. Darius and Xerxes were both Persian leaders that fought against the Greek city-states. 4. Age Spartan life revolved around the military. Everything that was done, was done for the good of the “state.” Focus was on obedience and structure.
1. Spartan life revolved around the military. Everything that was done, was done for the good of the “state.” Focus was on obedience and structure. Women had more freedom b/c men were away at war. Boys left at age 7 to receive military training. 2. In Athens, more focus was put on intellectual study. Boys did have some military training, but more focus was put on reading, writing, speaking & the arts. Girls received little/no education and women had very little rights. 3. Live in Athens or Sparta? You explain!
1. Alexander’s troops refused to go on and fight – forcing Alexander to turn around and head home 2. He died of malaria – a disease commonly from a mosquito 3. After Alexander died he left his empire to “the strongest” 1. It was split between 3 top generals 1. King of Macedonia/Greece 2. King of Syria 3. King of Egypt – Ptolemy 4. So many of Greek achievements are important because they are so long lasting and influence our art, architecture, philosophy, and government. 5. The Peloponnesian War – fought mainly between Sparta & Athens weakened the city-states and left them open for invasion from the Macedonians